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Childhood Cancer 2nd edition,
Childhood Cancer

Technical Reading


The following excerpt is taken from Childhood Cancer: A Parent's Guide to Solid Tumor Cancers by Honna Janes-Hodder & Nancy Keene, copyright 1999 by O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. For book orders/information, call 1-800-998-9938. Permission is granted to print and distribute this excerpt for noncommercial use as long as the above source is included. The information in this article is meant to educate and should not be used as an alternative for professional medical care.

Chapter 2: Coping with Procedures

Bearison, David, and Raymond Mulhern. Pediatric Psychooncology: Psychological Perspectives on Children with Cancer. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Excellent collection of technical articles on psychological aspects of pediatric oncology, with especially good sections on pain identification and management.

Greenbaum, Barbara, MD, and Jay Herman, MD. "Transfusion Therapy in Pediatric Oncology." Pediatric Annals 17, no. 11 (1988). Detailed discussion of red blood cell transfusions, platelet transfusions, white cell transfusions, CMV, transfusion reactions, and irradiation of blood products.

McDowall, R. H., C. S. Scher, et al. "Total Intravenous Anesthesia for Children Undergoing Brief Diagnostic or Therapeutic Procedures." Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 7, no. 4 (1995): 273-80.

Schechter, N. L., S. J. Weisman, et al. "The Use of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate for Painful Procedures in Children." Pediatrics 95, no. 3 (1995): 335-39.

Warne, T. M. "Clinical Applications for Pediatric Sedation." CRNA 8, no. 4 (1997): 144-51.

Chapter 3: Family and Friends

Grootenhuis M. A., and B. F. Last. "Adjustment and Coping by Parents of Children with Cancer: A Review of the Literature." Support Care Cancer 5, no. 6 (1997): 466-84.

Speechley, Kathy Nixon, and Samuel Noh. "Surviving Childhood Cancer, Social Support, and Parent's Psychological Adjustment." Journal of Pediatric Psychology 17, no. 1 (1992): 15-31. Assessment of emotional strain and social support of families of children with cancer.

Chapter 5: Clinical Trials

Bleyer, W. A. "The US Pediatric Cancer Clinical Trials Programmes: International Implications and the Way Forward." European Journal of Cancer 33, no. 9 (1997): 1439-47.

Leventhal, Brigid, and Michael Graham. "Clinical Trials in Pediatric Oncology." Seminars in Oncology 15, no. 5 (1988): 482-7. Discusses the different types of clinical trials, the ethics of using children as research subjects, and the existence of cooperative group studies.

National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). 1-800-4-CANCER. PDQ is a computer data base that can provide information sheets (in either medical or nonmedical terms) on each type of cancer. PDQ can also provide lists of all the current clinical trials in the US, Canada, and abroad.

Pyke-Grimm K. A., et al. "Preferences for Participation in Treatment Decision Making and Information Needs of Parents of Children with Cancer: A Pilot Study." Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 16, no. 1 (1999): 13-24.

The Centerwatch Clinical Trials Listing Service at http://www.centerwatch.com contains a searchable database of 7,500 current clinical trials in all areas of medicine, including cancer.

Chapter 6: Venous Catheters

Ingram, Joanne, RN, Sheila Weitzman, MD, et al. "Complications of In-dwelling Venous Access Lines in the Pediatric Hematology Patient: A Prospective Comparison of External Venous Catheters and Subcutaneous Ports." The American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 13, no. 2 (1991): 130-36.

Korones, D. N., C. J. Buzzard, et al. "Right Atrial Thrombi in Children with Cancer and Indwelling Catheters." Journal of Pediatrics 128, no. 6 (1996): 841-46.

Stovroff, M., and W. G. Teague. "Intravenous access in infants and children." Pediatric Clinics of North America 45, no. 6 (1998): 1373-93.

Shapiro, C. L. "Central Venous Access Catheter." Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 4, no. 3 (1995): 443-51.

Simmons, Jeane, MSII, Aman Buzdar, MD, et al. "Complications Associated with Indwelling Catheters." Medical and Pediatric Oncology 20 (1992): 22-25.

Wiernikowski, John T., and Marilyn Rothney. "Evaluation of Home Intravenous Antibiotic Program in Pediatric Oncology." American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 13, no. 2 (1991): 144-47.

Chapter 8: Neuroblastoma

Bowman, L. et al. "IL-2 Adenovector-Transduced Autologous Tumor Cells Induce Antitumor Immune Responses in Patients with Neuroblastoma." Blood 92, no. 6 (1998): 1941-49.

Brodeur, G. M. "Biology and Genetics of Human Neuroblastomas." Journal of Pediatric Hematoly/Oncology 19, no. 2 (1997): 93-101.

Castleberry, R. P. "Neuroblastoma." European Journal of Cancer 33, no. 9 (1997): 1430-38.

Cheung, N. K., et. al. "Detection of Neuroblastoma in Bone Marrow by Immunocytology: Is a Single Marrow Aspirate Adequate?" Medical and Pediatric Oncology 32, no. 2 (1999): 84-7.

Haase G. M., C. Perez, and J. B. Atkinson. "Current Aspects of Biology, Risk Assessment, and Treatment of Neuroblastoma." Semin Surgical Oncology 16, no. 2 (1999): 91-104.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1996. Chapter 31, "Neuroblastoma." Extremely technical.

Chapter 9: Wilms Tumor

Canning, D. A. "Is Partial Nephrectomy Appropriate Treatment for Unilateral Wilms' Tumor?" Journal of Urology 161, no. 1 (1999): 367.

Choyke, P. L., et. al. "Screening for Wilms tumor in Children with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome or Idiopathic Hemihypertrophy." Medical and Pediatric Oncology 32, no. 3 (1999): 196-200.

Levien, M. G., and Bringelsen, K. A. "Postoperative Chemotherapy in the National Wilms' Tumor Studies." Semin Urol Oncol 17, no. 1 (1999): 40-5.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 28, "Wilms Tumor." Extremely technical.

Shamberger, R. C., et al. "Surgery-Related Factors and Local Recurrence of Wilms Tumor in National Wilms Tumor Study 4." Annals of Surgery 229, no. 2 (1999): 292-7.

Wiener, J. S., M. J. Coppes, and M. L. Ritchey. "Current Concepts in the Biology and Management of Wilms Tumor." Journal of Urology 159, no. 4 (1998): 1316-25.

Chapter 10: Soft Tissue Sarcomas

Donaldson S. S., et al. "Factors that Influence Treatment Decisions in Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma. Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group of the Children's Cancer Group, the Pediatric Oncology Group, and the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group Statistical Center." Radiology 203, no. 1 (1997): 17-22.

Flamant, F. et al. "Treatment of Non-Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcomas in Childhood and Adolescence. Results of the Second Study of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology: MMT84." European Journal of Cancer 34, no. 7 (1998): 1050-62.

Lawrence, W., Jr., et al. "Pretreatment TNM Staging of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. Children's Cancer Study Group. Pediatric Oncology Group." Cancer 80, no. 6 (1997): 1165-70.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 30, "Rhabdomyosarcoma and the Undifferentiated Sarcomas." Chapter 31, "Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumors: Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone and Soft Tissue and the Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors." Chapter 32, "Other Soft Tissue Sarcomas of Childhood." Extremely technical.

Pratt, C. B. et al. "Treatment of Unresectable or Metastatic Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcomas with Surgery, Irradiation, and Chemotherapy: A Pediatric Oncology Group study." Medical Pediatric Oncology 30, no. 4 (1998): 201-9.

Walterhouse, D. O., M. L. Hoover, M. A. Marymont, and M. Kletzel. "High-dose Chemotherapy Followed by Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Rescue for Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma: The Experience at Chicago Children's Memorial Hospital." Medical Pediatroc Oncology 32, no. 2 (1999): 88-92.

Chapter 11: Bone Sarcomas

Craft, A., et al. "Ifosfamide-containing Chemotherapy in Ewing's Sarcoma: The Second United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group and the Medical Research Council Ewing's Tumor Study." Journal of Clinical Oncology 16, no. 11 (1998): 3628-33.

Ferrari, S., et al. "Long-term Follow-up and Post-relapse Survival in Patients with Non-metastatic Osteosarcoma of the Extremity Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy." Annals of Oncology 8, no. 8 (1997): 765-71.

Harris, M. B., et al. "Treatment of Metastatic Osteosarcoma at Diagnosis: A Pediatric Oncology Group Study." Journal of Clinical Oncology 16, no. 11 (1998): 3641-48.

Madero, L., et al. "Megatherapy in Children with High-risk Ewing's Sarcoma in First Complete Remission." Bone Marrow Transplant 21, no. 8 (1998): 795-99.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 31, "Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumors: Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone and Soft Tissue and the Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors." Chapter 33, "Osteosarcoma." Extremely technical.

Sluga, M., et. al. "Local and Systemic Control After Ablative and Limb Sparing Surgery in Patients with Osteosarcoma." Clin Orthop 358 (1999): 120-7.

Chapter 12: Liver Cancers

Bhattacharya, S., et. al. "Hepatic Neoplasms in Childhood: A Clinicopathologic Study." Pediatric Surg Int 14, nos. 1-2 (1998): 51-4.

Chen, J. C., et al. "Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Children: Clinical Review and Comparison with Adult Cases." Journal of Pediatric Surgery 33, no. 9 (1998): 1350-54.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 27, "Hepatic Tumors." Extremely technical.

Rose, A. T., et al. "Hepatocellular Carcinoma Outcomes Based on Indicated Treatment Strategy." Am Surg 64, no. 12 (1998): 1128-34.

Chapter 13: Retinoblastoma

Cowell, J. K. and B. L. Gallie. "Which Retinoblastoma Patients Should be Screened for RB1 Mutations?" European Journal of Cancer 34, no. 12 (1998): 1825-26.

Gunduz, K., et. al. "The Outcome of Chemoreduction Treatment in Patients with Reese-Ellsworth Group V Retinoblastoma." Archives of Ophthalmology 116, no. 12 (1998): 1613-17.

Harbour, J. W. "Overview of RB Gene Mutations in Patients with Retinoblastoma. Implications for Clinical Genetic Screening." Ophthalmology 105, no. 8 (1998): 1442-47.

Murphree, A. L., J. G. Villablanca, et al. "Chemotherapy Plus Local Treatment in the Management of Intraocular Retinoblastoma." Archives of Ophthalmology 114, no. 11 (1996): 1348-56.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 26, "Retinoblastoma." Extremely technical.

Shields C. L., and J. A. Shields. "Recent Developments in the Management of Retinoblastoma." J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 36, no. 1 (1999): 8-18.

Chapter 14: Sources of Support

Bearison, David, and Raymond Mulhern. Pediatric Psyhooncology: Psychological Perspectives on Children with Cancer. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Comprehensive, technical book on the many aspects of psychological impacts on children with cancer.

Katz, E. R., J. W. Varni. "Social Support and Social Cognitive Problem-solving in Children with Newly Diagnosed Cancer." Cancer 71, no. 10 (1993): 3314-19.

Chapter 15: Chemotherapy

Cassileth, B. R., et al. "Alternative and Complementary Cancer Therapies." Cancer 77, no. 6 (1996): 1026-34.

Close, P., E. Burkey, et al. "A Prospective, Controlled Evaluation of Home Chemotherapy for Children with Cancer." Pediatrics 95, no. 6 (1995): 896-900.

USP DI, Volume II, Advice for the Patient: Drug Information in Lay Language. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., 1995. Contains detailed drug information in non-medical language. Available in most libraries.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 9, "General Principles of Chemotherapy." Extremely technical.

Physicians Desk Reference. Oradell, New Jersey: Medical Economics Data, 1996. Reference issued yearly lists authoritative information on all FDA approved drugs. Technical language. Available at reference desk in most libraries.

Chapter 16: Common Side Effects of Chemotherapy

Berkowitz, Robert J., DDS, G. A. Feretti, DDS, and J. H. Berg, DDS. "Dental Management of Children with Cancer." Pediatric Annals 17, no. 11 (1988). Discusses the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation on the mouth and teeth, infections, hemorrhage, and effects of bone marrow transplantation. Also contains a section on prevention of oral complications and long-term side effects of treatment.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 9, "General Principles of Chemotherapy." Chapter 44, "Management of Nausea and Vomiting." Extremely technical.

Chapter 17: Radiation Therapy

Bucholtz, Jennifer D. "Issues Concerning the Sedation of Children for Radiation Therapy." Oncology Nursing Forum 19, no. 4 (1992): 649-55.

Green, Daniel M., MD, and Giulio J. D'Angio, MD, eds. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1992.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 11, "General Principles of Radiation Therapy." Extremely technical.

Chapter 18: Surgery

Andrassy, Richard. ed. Pediatric Surgical Oncology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1998.

Godzinski, J., et. al. "Pediatric Surgical Oncology. 5--Nephroblastoma. International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) Nephroblastoma Trial & Study Committee." European Journal of Surgical Oncology 21, no. 4 (1995): 414-18.

Grimer, R. J., and S. R. Carter. "Pediatric Surgical Oncology. 3--Bone tumours." European Journal of Surgical Oncology 21, no. 2 (1995): 217-22.

O'Neill, James A. ed. Pediatric Surgery. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 10, "General Principles of Surgery." Extremely technical.

Chapter 19: Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation

Goldberg, S. L., et. al. "Value of the Pretransplant Evaluation in Predicting Toxic Day-100 Mortality Among Blood Stem-cell and Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients." Journal of Clinical Oncology 16, no. 12 (1998): 3796-802.

Goldberg, S. S., et al. "Engraftment After Myeloablative Doses of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine Followed by Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation for Treatment of Refractory Neuroblastoma." Med Pediatr Oncol 30, no. 6 (1998): 339-46.

Ladenstein, R., T. Philip T., H. Gardner. "Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Solid Tumors in Children." Curr Opin Pediatr 9, no. 1 (1997): 55-69.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 14, "Bone Marrow Transplantation in Pediatric Oncology." Extremely technical.

Taskinen, M. and Saarinen Pihkala. "Increase in Height During the First Year After Bone Marrow Transplantation Reflecting Nutritional Status of Children." Bone Marrow Transplant 22, no. 7 (1998): 689-92.

Wagner, J. E. "Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation." Cancer Treat Res 77 (1997): 187-216.

Chapter 20: Record Keeping and Finances

Lansky, Shirley B. "High Cost of Cancer." American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 9, no. 1 (1987): 89-91.

Mental Health Law Project. SSI: New Opportunities for Children with Disabilities. 1101 15th St. NW, Washington, DC 20005. Explains Supplemental Security Income (SSI), a Social Security benefit, to parents. Answers eligibility questions and how to appeal a denial of claims.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997. Chapter 53, "Financial Issues in Pediatric Cancer."

Chapter 21: Nutrition

Copeman, M. C. "Use of Total Parenteral Nutrition in Children With Cancer: A Review and Some Recommendations." Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 11, no. 5 (1994): 463-70.

Lerner, Michael. Choices in Healing: Integrating the Best of Conventional and Complimentary Approaches to Medicine. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1994. A comprehensive overview of both conventional and complimentary approaches to cancer treatment, including chapters on mainstream nutritional science, vitamins and minerals, and unconventional nutritional cancer therapies.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997. Chapter 42, "Nutritional Supportive Care."

Chapter 22: School

American Cancer Society. Back to School: A Handbook for Parents of Children with Cancer. To obtain a free copy, call 1-800-ACS-1234, ask for 88-20M-No. 4462-PS. 16-page introductory booklet covers school reentry, classroom presentations, the importance of advocates, legal issues, IEPs, and special needs.

Gullance, M. "Cancer in the classroom: Educating the school and the community for a student's reentry into school." Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 11, no. 2 (1994): 544.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and David G. Poplack, MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997. Chapter 51, "Educational Issues for Children with Cancer."

Chapter 23: Siblings

Heiney, Sue P., Karen Goon-Johnson, et al. "The Effects of Group Therapy on Siblings of Pediatric Oncology Patients." Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 7, no. 3 (1990): 95-100.

Lehna, C. R. "A Childhood Cancer Sibling's Oral History." Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 15, no. 3 (1998); 163-71.

Murray, J. S. "Siblings of Children with Cancer: A Review of the Literature." Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing. 16, no. 1 (1999): 25-34.

Chapter 24: Feelings, Communication, and Behavior

Denham, Susanne. Emotional Development in Young Children (The Guilford Series on Social and Emotional Development). New York: Guilford Press, 1998. Book describes the importance of emotional competence in young children. Includes case studies, original findings, and a review of the available literature.

Kazak, A. E., et al. "Post-traumatic Stress, Family Functioning, and Social Support in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia and their Mothers and fathers." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 65, 1 (1997): 120-29.

LaMontagne, L. L., et al. "Parent Coping and Child Distress Behaviors During Invasive Procedures for Childhood Cancer." Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 16, no. 1 (1999): 3-12.

Pizzo, Philip A. MD, and David G. Poplack MD. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1997. Chapter 47, "Psychiatric and Psychosocial Support for the Child and Family. "Chapter 48, "The Other of Side of the Bed: What Caregivers Can Learn from Listening to Patients and Their Families."

Chapter 25: End of Treatment and Beyond

Books

Green, Daniel, MD, and Giulio D'Angio, MD, eds. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1992. Technical text covering such issues as neuropsychological function following treatment, growth hormone deficiency, precocious and premature puberty, reproductive function after bone marrow transplant, insurance issues, and job discrimination.

Marina, N. "Long-term Survivors of Childhood Cancer. The Medical Consequences of Cure." Pediatric Clinics of North America 44, no. 4 (1997): 1021-42.

Monaco, G. P., et al. "Legal and Societal Issues Facing Survivors of Childhood Cancer." Pediatric Clinics of North America 44, no. 4 (1997): 1043-58.

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and Poplack, David G., MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997. Chapter 50, "Late Effects of Childhood Cancer and Its Treatment." Chapter 54, "Pediatric Cancer: Advocacy, Legal, Insurance, and Employment Issues." Chapter 57, "Preventing Cancer in Adulthood: Advice for the Pediatrician."

Schwartz, Cindy, MD, Wendy Hobbie, RN, et al. Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Assessment and Management. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1994. Excellent, up-to-date technical volume covering all aspects of possible late effects from treatment for childhood cancer. Includes chapters on each body system: central nervous system, neuroendocrine, head and neck, thyroid, cardiovascular, pulmonary, liver, ovary, testes, genitourinary, muscular, and skeletal systems. Also discusses a broad spectrum of survivor psychosocial issues and the need for long-term follow-up.This book is out of print but may be available in your hospital's library.

Articles

Berkowitz, Robert, DDS, et al. "Dental Management of Children with Cancer." Pediatric Annals 17, no. 11 (1988): 715-25. Discusses the short-term and long-term side effects of chemotherapy, radiation, and bone marrow transplant.

DeLaat, C., and B. Lampkin. "Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Evaluation and Identification of Sequelae of Treatment." CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 42, no. 5 (1992): 263-82. Excellent review article. This article summarizes all known late effects from treatment for childhood cancer and outlines current recommendations for screening.

Fochtman, D. "Follow-up Care for Survivors of Childhood Cancer." Nurse Practitioner Forum 6:4 (Dec 1995): 194-200. As the large number of survivors of childhood cancer reach adulthood, the need for follow-up for late effects from their cancer therapy is necessary. Discusses the need to educate both survivors and their health care providers.

Steinherz, Laurel, MD, and Thomas Graham, MD. "Guidelines for Cardiac Monitoring of Children During and After Anthracycline Therapy: Report of the Cardiology Committee of the Children's Cancer Study Group." Pediatrics 89, no. 5 (1992). The anthracyclines are important drugs for treating malignancies, but their use is limited by their cardiotoxicity. In this article, the Children's Cancer Study Group has formulated recommendations for monitoring children before, during, and after chemotherapy to allow for dose modification if cardiac damage is evident.

Van Eys, Jan. "The Truly Cured Child." Pediatrician 18 (1991): 90-95. The concept of the truly cured child describes a child on par with her peers in development, maturation, achievement, and aspirations. The term cure has three components: biological cure, psychological cure, and social cure. Includes a description of a true psychosocial cure and methods to achieve it.

Chapter 26: Relapse

Hinds, P. S., L. K. Birenbaum, et al. "Coming to Terms: Parents' Response to a First Cancer Recurrence in Their Child." Nursing Research 45, no. 3 (1996): 148-53.

Villeneuve, P. J., et al. "Survival Rates Among Canadian Children and Teenagers with Cancer Diagnosed Between 1985 and 1988." Cancer Prevention and Control 2, no. 1 (1998): 15-22.

Chapter 27: Bereavement

Pizzo, Philip A., MD, and Poplack, David G., MD, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997. Chapter 52, "Care of the Dying Child."

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