Upright drying machine
Upright drying machine (source: New York Public Library Digital Collections)

The first support for managing networking devices was provided by a Puppet agent acting as a proxy for the network device.

A node running puppet device would log in to the network device to gather facts, then connect to a Puppet server and request a catalog for the device. The device agent would then apply the catalog resources to the network device. This proxy implementation allows for management of network devices incapable of running a Puppet agent on their own.

This works surprisingly well, and provides power and flexibility to manage Cisco routers and switches without an embedded Puppet agent. Let's configure one now.

Configuring the Puppet Proxy Agent

Select a node that can complete both of the following network connections:

  • SSH to the Cisco switch or router (destination TCP port 22)
  • Connect to the Puppet server (destination TCP port 8140)

On this node, create a non-privileged user account to use for device management. There is no reason to use the root account. You can use a single shared account for all devices, or a different user account for each device if you prefer. The process shown here will create a non-privileged user and an appropriate Puppet configuration file:

[vagrant@client ~]$ sudo useradd -U -m -c "Puppet Device Manager" devicemgr
[vagrant@client ~]$ sudo -u devicemgr -i
[devicemgr@client ~]$ mkdir -p .puppetlabs/etc/puppet
[devicemgr@client ~]$ ln -s .puppetlabs/etc/puppet
[devicemgr@client ~]$ $EDITOR .puppetlabs/etc/puppet/puppet.conf

Create ~/.puppetlabs/etc/puppet/puppet.conf with the following settings:

  server = puppet.example.com

Create ~/.puppetlabs/etc/puppet/device.conf with a list of devices, their type, and a URL to access them. The URL must contain both the username and password to access the device, and the enable password if required:

type cisco
url ssh://puppet:password@switch01.example.com/?enable=admin

Secure the file containing passwords, for obvious reasons:

[devicemgr@client ~]$ chmod 0600 .puppetlabs/etc/puppet/device.conf

Now we will connect this network device to the Puppet server, using a process very similar to how new nodes are connected. Initialize the proxy agent for this device with the command puppet device followed by the node name:

$ puppet device switch01.example.com --verbose
applying configuration to switch01.example.com at ssh://switch01.example.com/
Info: Creating a new SSL key for switch01.example.com
Info: Caching certificate for ca
Info: Creating a new SSL certificate request for switch01.example.com
Info: Certificate Request fingerprint (SHA256): 65:FC:AA:E3:F5:E5:5D:05:D0:D9:…
Info: Caching certificate for ca

You may need to run puppet cert sign switch01.example.com on the Puppet server to authorize the network device, and then run the command again.

This process has created a new Puppet agent dedicated to managing this network device. All of the configuration files, TLS certificates, logs, and state files for this device can be found in the ~/.puppetlabs/ directory structure. They never mix or interfere with the Puppet agent running as root on this node.

This network device can now be configured through idempotent declarations in Puppet manifests.

Article image: Upright drying machine (source: New York Public Library Digital Collections).