The OSI reference model is the most basic element of computer networking used commonly as a point of reference by network engineers. Network engineering expert, John Pickard, discusses the role of the OSI model in data encapsulation and de-encapsulation, and identifies the seven layers of the OSI model by name and number, even offering a mnemonic for remembering their correct order.

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Article image: Screen from "What is the OSI model?" (source: O'Reilly).