5.1.4–5.1.6: Cisco IOS software allows you to configure the router from a command-line interface (CLI). You can also use the Cisco Router and Security Device Manager (Cisco SDM) as a graphical user interface (GUI) to configure the router. When you first power on the router, it performs the following tasks in addition to loading Cisco IOS software:
1. The router performs a power-on self-test (POST) to check its hardware.
2. The router loads a bootstrap and initializes the Cisco IOS image from flash, a TFTP server, or read-only memory (ROM). The location of the Cisco IOS image is usually specified in the configuration register.
3. After the IOS image is loaded, the router loads the startup configuration file from nonvolatile ...