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3D Printing

Book Description

3D printing is a nothing short of revolutionary. There may be no other technology that enables the at-home inventor or artist to design, create, and "print" their own parts, artwork, or whatever else can be imagined. Idiot's Guides: 3D Printing takes the true beginner through all of the steps necessary to design and build their own 3D printer and design and print whatever their imagination can conjure up (even another 3D printer). Readers will learn all of the essential basics of 3D printing including materials, parts, software, modeling, basic design, and finishing, and then teach them to take their new skills to the next level to print some simple, fun projects. For readers not interested in building their own 3D printer, there are tips and advice for buying a manufactured printer, buying materials, finding plans and projects online, and much, much more.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Dedication
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Introduction
  6. Part 1: What Is 3D Printing?
    1. 1 The Goal of 3D Printing
      1. For Businesses
        1. Rapid Prototyping
        2. Manufacturing
      2. For the Hobbyist
        1. The Maker Culture
        2. A Tool in Your Arsenal
      3. Common Misconceptions
        1. Materials You Can Use
        2. A Replicator in Every Home
        3. The Time It Takes
        4. What It Can Print
        5. Finishing
    2. 2 The History and Future of 3D Printing
      1. 3D Printing Is Born
        1. Hull’s and 3D Systems’ Contributions
        2. The Invention of FDM Printing
        3. The Development of Other 3D Printing Processes
      2. The RepRap Project
        1. Initial Intentions
        2. The Importance of Open Source
        3. Rapid Development
      3. Refinement, Availability, and Your Wallet
        1. Maturation of Technology
        2. Availability of Parts
        3. The Race to the Lowest Price
    3. 3 Manufacturing with 3D Printers and CNC Mills
      1. The Simple Principle Behind 3D Printing
        1. Slicing and Creating Layers for Your Model
        2. Extruding Filament
      2. CNC Milling and How It Works
        1. Subtracting with CAM Software
        2. Milling the Material
      3. Pros and Cons of 3D Printers vs. CNC Mills
        1. Cost
        2. Part Geometry
        3. Material Matters
        4. Surface Finish
      4. Using the Right Tool for the Job
    4. 4 Types of 3D Printers
      1. Stereolithography
      2. Digital Light Processing
      3. Powder Bed Printing
      4. MultiJet Printing
      5. Selective Laser Sintering
      6. Fused Filament Fabrication
  7. Part 2: All About the Hardware
    1. 5 The Frame
      1. Cartesian Layouts
        1. Ways Cartesian 3D Printers Are Constructed
        2. Cartesian Layout Considerations
      2. The Importance of Frame Construction
        1. Rigidity and How It Affects Quality and Reliability
        2. What Makes a Good Frame
      3. Size Matters
    2. 6 Movement Components
      1. Components for Smooth Linear Motion
        1. Rails and Smooth Rods
        2. Bearings
      2. Stepper Motors
      3. Belts and Pulleys
      4. Weight-Bearing Components for Converting Motion
        1. Lead Screws
        2. Threaded Rods
      5. Attachment and Connection Components
        1. Couplers
        2. Nuts
    3. 7 The Extruder
      1. What Is Extrusion?
      2. The Cold End
        1. Direct Feed
        2. Bowden
        3. Direct Drive vs. Geared
      3. The Hot End
        1. Thermistor
        2. Heating Element
        3. Physical Design and Makeup
      4. The Nozzle
      5. Print Fans
      6. Using Multiple Extruders
        1. For Support Material
        2. For Filaments with Different Properties
    4. 8 The Build Platform
      1. Build Platform Materials
      2. Heated Beds
      3. Heated Build Chambers and Enclosures
      4. Surface Treatments
        1. Painter’s Tape
        2. White Glue
        3. Polyimide Film
        4. PET Film
        5. ABS Juice
        6. Hairspray
    5. 9 Control Components
      1. End Stops
        1. Mechanical End Stops
        2. Optical End Stops
        3. Other Kinds of End Stops
      2. Control Boards
        1. Arduinos and Proprietary Control Boards
        2. Changing or Upgrading Control Boards
      3. SD Card Support
        1. Using an SD Card
        2. Benefits of SD Cards
      4. LCD Controllers
    6. 10 Choosing a 3D Printer
      1. Open or Closed?
        1. What Does It Mean to Be Open Source?
        2. Why It Might Matter to You
      2. Assembled, Kit, or DIY?
        1. Assembled 3D Printers
        2. 3D Printer Kits
        3. Building a DIY 3D Printer
      3. Determining Your Needs
        1. Print Volume
        2. Print Resolution
        3. Filament
        4. Prices
      4. Printers with Unusual Designs
  8. Part 3: Setting Up and Printing
    1. 11 Software Setup and Printer Control
      1. Firmware Explained
      2. Choosing Host Software
      3. Choosing Slicing Software
      4. Connecting to Your Printer
      5. Controlling Your Printer
      6. G-Code
        1. Printing with G-Code
        2. Performing Functions Manually with G-Code
    2. 12 Leveling the Bed and Adjusting the Z Height
      1. Why Does Your Bed Need to Be Leveled?
        1. Manual Leveling
        2. Auto-Leveling
      2. How to Adjust Your Z Height
        1. Setting the Z Height Manually or Automatically
        2. Knowing the “Correct” Z Height
    3. 13 Slicing and Printing
      1. Configuring Your Slicing Software
      2. Slicer Settings Explained
        1. Printer Settings
        2. Filament Settings
        3. Print Settings
      3. Preparing for and Running a Print
        1. Host Preparation
        2. Running a Print
    4. 14 Troubleshooting Your Prints
      1. What’s the Problem?
      2. Extrusion Problems
        1. Overextrusion
        2. Underextrusion
        3. Jamming
        4. Poor Dimensional Accuracy
      3. Temperature Problems
        1. Hot End Is Too Hot
        2. Hot End Is Too Cold
        3. Cracking of Part Due to Cooling
        4. Discoloration of Filament Due to Heat
      4. Adhesion Problems
        1. Warping
        2. Part Comes Loose
        3. Part Breaks During Removal
      5. Other Printer Problems
        1. Blobs
        2. Stringing
        3. Drooping
        4. Ghosting
    5. Project 1: Carabiner
      1. Preheat the Extruder and Heated Bed
      2. Load the .STL File
      3. Slice the Model
      4. Load the Filament
      5. Extrude Some Filament
      6. Start the Print
      7. Watch the First Layer
      8. Let the Part Cool
      9. Remove the Part
    6. Project 2: Pencil Holder
      1. Load the .STL File and Resize the Model, If Necessary
      2. Preheat the Extruder and Heated Bed, and Load the Filament
      3. Modify the Slicer Settings to Make the Model a Cup
      4. Slice the Model
      5. Start the Print
      6. Watch the First Layer
      7. Remove the Part
    7. Project 3: Robot
      1. Load the .STL File
      2. Preheat the Extruder and Heated Bed, and Load the Filament
      3. Modify the Slicer Settings for Supports
      4. Slice the Model
      5. Start the Print
      6. Watch the First Layer
      7. Remove the Part
      8. Remove the Supports
    8. Project 4: Storage Box with Drawers
      1. Open Your Host Software and Load the Storage Body .STL File
      2. Slice the Storage Body
      3. Print the Storage Body
      4. Load the Drawer .STL File and Slice It
      5. Print the Drawer
      6. Print Two More Drawers
  9. Part 4: 3D Modeling
    1. 15 Introduction to CAD
      1. Why CAD Came About
      2. Artistic 3D Modeling vs. CAD Software
      3. CAD Software Options
      4. An Overview of Common CAD Program Commands
        1. Modeling Commands
        2. Sketching Commands
      5. The Importance of Units and Scale
        1. Choosing Units
        2. Scaling in CAD
    2. 16 Modeling Techniques and Best Practices
      1. Premodeling
      2. Tricks of the Trade
      3. Assemblies and Fitting Parts
        1. Planning an Assembly
        2. Fitting Parts Together
      4. Modeling Successful 3D Parts
      5. Exporting Files
    3. 17 Practical Reverse Engineering
      1. Why You Should Learn Basic Reverse Engineering
      2. Finding the Right Measurement Tools
        1. Digital Calipers: A Necessary Tool
        2. 3D Scanners: Not All They’re Cracked Up to Be
      3. Measuring the Part
      4. Inferences
        1. Geometric
        2. Design Intention
        3. Proportions
      5. Modeling the Part
    4. Project 5: Monogrammed Coaster
      1. Open Your CAD Program and Create a New Part
      2. Extrude a Circle
      3. Fillet the Top Edge
      4. Cut the Letter
      5. Export the .STL File and Print
    5. Project 6: Custom Storage Drawer
      1. Open Your CAD Program and Create a New Part
      2. Extrude the Body of the Drawer
      3. Cut an Opening for the Handle
      4. Design the Compartments
      5. Add a Rough Handle
      6. Add Fillets to Handle
      7. Add Ridges for Grip
      8. Export the .STL File and Print
    6. Project 7: Dust Collector
      1. Create a New Part and Revolve the Body
      2. Cut a Groove
      3. Create the Second Part and Revolve the Body
      4. Make the First Clip
      5. Copy the Clip
      6. Export the .STL Files and Print
    7. Project 8: Reverse Engineering a Useful Part
      1. Create a New Part and Extrude the Body
      2. Fillet the Edges
      3. Shell the Cover
      4. Cut One Socket Opening
      5. Mirror the Socket Opening
      6. Create the Screw Hole Support
      7. Add the Screw Hole
      8. Export the .STL File and Print
  10. Part 5: Advanced Usage and Techniques
    1. 18 Printing with Other Materials
      1. What Materials Are Available?
        1. Nylon
        2. Polycarbonate
        3. Flexible Filament
        4. Wood Filament
        5. PET
        6. HIPS
      2. Hardware Needed
        1. All-Metal Hot Ends
        2. Print Fans
        3. Heated Beds and Bed Materials
      3. Printing Techniques
        1. Temperature
        2. Speed
        3. Cooling
        4. Layer Thickness
    2. 19 Modifying Your Printer
      1. Adding a Fan Shroud
      2. Adding a Heated Bed
        1. Bed Size
        2. Control Board
        3. Power Supply
      3. Switching to All-Metal Hot Ends
      4. Installing Multiple Extruders
      5. Extending Axes
      6. Converting to a PCB Mill
      7. Alterations for Laser Cutting
      8. Finding Parts
  11. Appendixes
    1. A Glossary
    2. B Resources
    3. C Further Uses of 3D Printing
  12. About the Author