The vulnerabilities described in this book have one thing in common: They all lead to exploitable memory errors. Such memory errors occur when a process, a thread, or the kernel is
Using memory it does not own (e.g., NULL pointer dereferences, as described in Section A.2)
Using more memory than has been allocated (e.g., buffer overflows, as described in Section A.1)
Using uninitialized memory (e.g., uninitialized variables)
Using faulty heap-memory management (e.g., double frees)
Memory errors typically happen when powerful C/C++ features like explicit memory management or pointer arithmetic are used incorrectly.
A subcategory of memory errors, called memory corruption, happens when a process, a thread, or the kernel modifies ...