5    Sustainable urbanization and human security

Halvard Buhaug, Henrik Urdal and Gudrun Østby

Introduction

For the first time in history, the majority of the world population now lives in cities. By 2050, two in every three persons will live in urban areas, and virtually all population growth during this period, around 3 billion people, will be absorbed by cities, primarily in developing countries (UN, 2008). Considering the impending consequences of global warming, such as accelerating sea level rise and more extreme weather patterns, we might see an even stronger urbanization trend. Adverse climate is a potential additional contributor to rural-urban migration everywhere, and in particular in poorer countries where livelihoods, economies and ...

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