Chapter 2: Study Designs
Whether you are reading a study or designing your own, one of the most important factors that you should consider is the study design. For example, are you going to randomly assign subjects to different treatments, or are you simply going to observe outcomes in people who have some trait in common? This chapter describes some of the commonly used study designs, and this discussion will help you decide the quality of study results and how much faith you should have in the results, regardless of the p-value or size of the effect.
Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
This is the “gold standard” ...