7

Inferencing, reasoning, and rules

By virtue of the fact that a graph defines things and their relationships to one another, it is possible to follow paths in a graph or compare entities and their connections, to deduce, or infer, knowledge that isn’t explicitly represented. Humans do this all the time but are barely aware of it most of the time. The Semantic Web embraces and facilitates computational reasoning over triples because ontologies are defined based on the formal branch of mathematics called first order logic. Every graph segment represents a statement of fact, which is called an axiom. Logic provides a formalized language for specifying the implications of statements and for evaluating a series of statements to determine new knowledge ...

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