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A One-Semester Course in Modeling of VSLI Interconnections by Ashok Goel

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CHAPTER 5

Modeling of Electromigration-Induced Interconnection Failure

The term “electromigration” refers to mass transport in metals under high stress conditions, especially under high current densities and high temperatures. This phenomenon has been studied at length during the last several years and presents a key problem in integrated circuits since it causes open-circuit and short-circuit failures of the interconnections [1179]. Nowadays, there is a trend to fabricate very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits on small chip areas to save space and to reduce propagation delays. According to the scaling theory for both bipolar and FET circuits, if the chip area is decreased by a factor k, the current density increases by at least the same ...

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