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A Practical Guide to Linux Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, Second Edition by Mark G. Sobell

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1. Welcome to Linux and Mac OS X

An operating system is the low-level software that schedules tasks, allocates storage, and handles the interfaces to peripheral hardware, such as printers, disk drives, the screen, keyboard, and mouse. An operating system has two main parts: the kernel and the system programs. The kernel allocates machine resources—including memory, disk space, and CPU (page 949) cycles—to all other programs that run on the computer. The system programs include device drivers, libraries, utility programs, shells (command interpreters), configuration scripts and files, application programs, servers, and ...

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