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A Practical Introduction to Human-in-the-Loop Cyber-Physical Systems by Fernando Boavida, Jorge Sá Silva, David Nunes

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Preface

The Internet has changed our whole life and it will have further impact on how we live and how we work. Most of the cyber-physical systems (CPSs) make use of the Internet and even define parts of it. Let me cite Wikipedia in this preface, even though it is not very scientific so to do. Understanding the CPS as “a mechanism controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, tightly integrated with the internet and its users” means that users, humans, are essential for any CPS. The National Institute of Standards and Technology of the US Department of Commerce (NIST) goes even further, stating that “these systems will provide the foundation of our critical infrastructure, form the basis of emerging and future smart services, and improve our quality of life in many areas”. Looking at the examples mentioned in Wikipedia, “smart grid, autonomous automobile systems, medical monitoring, process control systems, robotics systems, and automatic pilot avionics”, human are always involved.

Humans are not only involved; humans are the essential part of CPSs; CPSs have to serve us! With the basic idea, to incorporate humans as being in the system, we encounter human-in-the-loop (HiTL). It comprises a model, an adequate representation of the human behavior in order to treat it as an integral part of the whole system. Just as one example, let me cite Carsten Binning et.al. at his preface of the Proceedings of the first Workshop on Human-In-the-Loop Data Analytics HILDA of June 26th, ...

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