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A Professional and Practitioner's Guide to Public Relations Research, Measurement, and Evaluation, Second Edition by Don W. Stacks, David Michaelson

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Chapter 8

Survey Methodology

As noted earlier, research can take on many forms, some of it focusing on unique and individual responses that provide rich information about a problem or a project, but sometimes an understanding of how large groups of individuals perceive a problem or a project is required. This type of research is called quantitative research. When the researcher is asking questions about larger groups of individuals from a quantitative approach, that researcher is seeking normative data. Normative data provide information on larger groups that then can be further subdivided by nominal or ordinal, or both data (see Chapter 4) and compared or can be compared against data gathered by others from similar groups.

The primary method ...

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