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A Professional and Practitioner's Guide to Public Relations Research, Measurement, and Evaluation, Second Edition by Don W. Stacks, David Michaelson

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Chapter 9

Statistical Reasoning

Quantitative research by its very nature is closely associated with numbers and coming to conclusions based on those numbers. When a researcher uses a quantitative method he or she takes numerical data and interprets it through statistical reasoning. Statistical reasoning can be approached in two ways, depending on the nature of the research and its uses. The first way is to use the numerical data to simply describe variables in the study; this is called descriptive statistical reasoning. Often surveys will report what was found through the research in terms that simply describe how many respondents answered statements or as levels of a particular variable, such as sex (48 females or 48 percent of the sample as ...

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