1. Jazz developed out of a blending of African and African American music with the European tradition and is arguably a fusion of Western and African culture.
2. The Great Recession had a delayed impact on the rock-pop-country concert tour business; in part because of touring schedules, 2009 was a banner year (topped by U2 and Madonna) while 2010 and 2011 were soft.
3. Flanagan (2012).
5. The NEA’s benchmark activities, tracked since 1982, are attendance at jazz, classical music, opera, musical plays, nonmusical plays, and ballet performances, and visits to art museums or art galleries. The survey counts any performance, whether professional or nonprofessional, ...