Three-Dimensional Accountability

The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new lands, but in seeing with new eyes.


Marcel Proust, 1871–1922

This chapter creates the scaffold on which we can evaluate the quality of our existing accountability systems and understand the role they play in enforcing accountability in India.

Accountability is best viewed in three dimensions (3D). The first dimension is the mechanisms of accountability (Internal, Horizontal and External); the second dimension is the four foundations of accountability (Appropriate Representation, Participative Conduct, Legitimate Conduct and Liability Enforcement); and the third dimension is the three institutions of government (Legislature, Executive and Judiciary). ...

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