The equation describing the cross-sectional area S(x) as a function of the distance x along the axis is
where ST is the area of the throat, which is located at a distance x=xT ahead of the apex at x=0. In the steady state, the Helmholtz equation for the conical horn is obtained by inserting S(x) from Eq. (9.32) into Eq. (2.27) to yield
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