1.1 Background

With ever growing concerns about energy sustainability and environmental issues, the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) such as pure electric vehicles (PEVs) and plug‐in electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been identified to be one of the most effective strategies to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emission, and has attracted more and more attention from governments, industries, and customers [1, 2]. Many countries have taken aggressive step to promote EVs to meet emission targets under the Paris climate accord [3]. France has announced its plan to stop selling petrol and diesel‐powered cars by 2040. The UK follows France in banning sales of new petrol and diesel cars from 2040. Norway, which has the highest number of EVs in the world, has set a target of only allowing sales of 100% PEVs or PHEVs by 2025. The Netherlands has mooted a 2025 ban for diesel and petrol cars. Germany has passed a resolution calling for a ban on combustion engine cars by 2030. India is mulling the idea of moving toward prohibiting the internal combustion engine in 2030. China is developing a plan to phase out vehicles powered by fossil fuels [4]. Though China has not yet suggested any concrete timeline, it has ambitious goals for automotive efficiency and climate change including a cap on carbon emissions by 2030. Experts suggest this new ban might come into force around then. The policies of restricting sales of diesel and petrol cars in these countries ...

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