This chapter presents several examples showing how the concepts of the previous chapter are applied to real problems. The models are also used as the basis of estimation examples in the remaining chapters. The reader may wish to skim this chapter, but refer back to these models when later examples are discussed.

The included examples are

1. Passive angle-only tracking of linear-motion ship or aircraft targets

2. Maneuvering tank tracking using multiple models

3. Aircraft tracking with occasional maneuvers

4. Strapdown inertial navigation

5. Spacecraft orbital dynamics

6. A fossil-fueled power plant


Figure 3.1 shows the basic scenario for passive tracking of a target ship moving in a straight line—sometimes called target motion analysis (TMA). This is typical of cases in which a ship is using passive sonar to track another ship or submarine. Since sonar is passive to avoid detection, the only measurements are a time series of angle measurements—range is not available. This example is also typical of cases where aircraft emissions are passively tracked from another aircraft. The angle measurements are used in a batch least-squares solution to compute four states: the initial east (e) and north (n) positions and velocities of the target: xt = [pte0 ptn0 vte vtn]T. Notice that the “own-ship” (tracking ship) must make at least one maneuver in order to compute a solution. The 30-degree left maneuver shown ...

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