Advanced Photovoltaic Installations

Book description

Part of the Art and Science of Photovoltaics series The use of high-level, high-performing solar panel systems is quickly becoming a mainstream energy source. Advanced Photovoltaic Installations goes beyond the basics and provides readers with the knowledge they need to install PV systems to meed code requirements and to obtain high performance. It examines safety practices, inspection areas, testing and monitoring systems, and troubleshooting procedures. Advanced Photovoltaic Installations provides readers with the tools they need to contribute to the nation's energy security and to a cleaner, less carbon-dependent environment. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Brief Contents
  5. Contents (1/3)
  6. Contents (2/3)
  7. Contents (3/3)
  8. Preface
  9. Chapter 1 Introduction to Advanced Photovoltaic System Installation
    1. Designing a PV System
      1. Defining the Customer’s Needs and Budget
      2. Assessing the Installation Site
      3. Materials and Placement for the Site Environment
      4. Determining the Array Location
      5. Complying with Relevant Codes
      6. Minimizing Electrical Losses
      7. Storing and Managing Batteries
      8. Meeting Local Utility Interconnection Requirements
    2. Basic Stages in Installing a PV System
    3. General Recommendations for Installations
      1. Materials Recommendations
      2. Recommendations for Equipment and Methods of Installation
    4. PV System Installation, California Style
    5. Getting Installation Right for Top System Performance
      1. AC/DC Installation
      2. Array Mounting
      3. Array Interconnection
      4. Tips for Laying Cables and Placing Conductors
    6. Installing a Grid-Connected PV System
    7. Preparation for the Installation
      1. Step-by-Step System Installation (1/2)
      2. Step-by-Step System Installation (2/2)
  10. Chapter 2 Essential Safety Practices for Designing and Installing PV Systems
    1. Working Safely with PV Systems
    2. Connecting and Operating PV Systems
      1. Electrical Safety
      2. Protection from Falls
      3. Stairways and Ladders
      4. Hand and Power Tools
      5. Personal Protective Equipment
      6. Working Space for Electrical Systems
      7. Photovoltaic (PV) Modules
    3. Marking and Labeling Requirements
      1. Marking
      2. Labeling
    4. Access, Pathways, and Smoke Ventilation Requirements
      1. Residential Systems—Single-and Two-Unit Residential Dwellings
      2. Commercial Buildings and Residential Housing—Three or More Units
    5. Location and Protection of Direct Current (DC) Conductors
    6. Non-Habitable Building Requirements
    7. Ground-Mounted PV Arrays
    8. Safe Design of PV Systems—What the NEC Says
      1. System and Current Voltage Code
      2. Wiring and Disconnect Requirements
      3. Grounding Code
    9. Safety Hints for Testing a PV System (1/2)
    10. Safety Hints for Testing a PV System (2/2)
  11. Chapter 3 Installation: Creating the Best PV System
    1. General Recommendations
    2. Materials and Equipment Recommendations
    3. PV System Design and Installation
      1. Preparation
      2. Designing a PV System
      3. PV System Installation
    4. PV System Maintenance and Operation
    5. Signoffs at the Beginning and End of the Project
    6. PV System Plan Checklist
  12. Chapter 4 Site Review, Layout, Mounting Systems, and Building Integration
    1. Project Site Requirements
      1. PV Applications and Components
      2. Microclimate, Shading Effect, and the Solar Window
      3. Module Orientation and Tilt Angles
      4. Assessing Electrical Demand
    2. Shade Types
      1. Solar Path
      2. Shadow Types
    3. Shading Analysis
    4. Roof Installation Options
      1. Roofs
      2. Façade
      3. Glass Roofs
      4. Other Types of PV Array Mounting Locations
      5. PV Laminate
    5. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics, Solar Tiles, and Solar Shade Canopies
      1. Solar Tiles
      2. Solar Shades
  13. Chapter 5 Building Codes and Regulations for PV Systems
    1. OSHA Regulations
      1. General Safety Regulations
      2. Occupational Health Safety
      3. Personal Protection Equipment Safety
      4. Tool Safety
      5. Electrical Safety
      6. Protection from Falls
    2. The National Electrical Code (NEC)
      1. Longevity, Materials, and Safety
      2. Scope and Purpose of the NEC
      3. Testing and Approval
    3. Marking and Labeling PV Systems in Relation to Regulation and Code
  14. Chapter 6 Standalone PV Systems
    1. Standalone PV Systems
    2. Standalone Distribution Systems
      1. Interior DC Wiring and Receptacles
      2. Smoke Detectors
      3. Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters
      4. Multi-Wire Branch Circuits
    3. Planning and Designing Standalone Systems
    4. Modules in Standalone PV Systems
      1. Batteries in Standalone PV Systems
      2. Aging Effects
      3. Selection Criteria
    5. Battery Installation and Maintenance
      1. Wiring a Battery Bank
    6. Sizing Batteries in Standalone PV Systems
      1. Reducing the Size of Battery Banks
      2. Battery Maintenance and Safety
      3. Managing Charge
      4. Recycling
    7. Generators and Charge Controllers for Standalone PV Systems
      1. Charge Controllers
    8. Standalone Inverters
      1. Sine-Wave Inverters
      2. Modified Sine-Wave Inverters
      3. Square-Wave Inverters
      4. Direct Coupling of PV Array, Battery, and Load
      5. Measuring Electricity Consumption
    9. Sizing the PV Array
      1. Determine Load
      2. Determine Local Solar Component
      3. Determine PV System Efficiency
      4. Determine Autonomy in Days
      5. Determine Total Battery Amp-Hours from Watt-Hours
      6. Sample Calculations for Sizing an Off-Grid, Standalone PV System:
      7. Cable Conversion and Adjustment Losses
      8. Design Outcome
      9. Summarization of Calculation Methods for Designing a PV Array
      10. Wire Sizing
      11. Charge Controller Cable
    10. Inverter Use
      1. System Labels and Warnings
      2. General
  15. Chapter 7 PV Technology—Cells, Panels, Arrays, Balance of System, and Inverters
    1. Shading and Shading Checklists
      1. PV Array Configuration and System Concept
      2. Facts About Shading Cells, Panels, and Strings
    2. Balance of System Locations and Layout
    3. Building Survey and PV System Checklists
      1. PV System Checklist
    4. Determining a System Design
      1. Choosing Modules and Inverters
      2. Adapting Mechanical System Design (1/2)
      3. Adapting Mechanical System Design (2/2)
      4. Adapting the Electrical System Design (1/3)
      5. Adapting the Electrical System Design (2/3)
      6. Adapting the Electrical System Design (3/3)
    5. Charge Controllers
      1. Low Voltage Disconnect
    6. Generators
      1. PV Gas/Diesel Hybrid System
      2. Generators in the NEC
    7. Point-of-Utility Connections
    8. Optional Standby System Panels
  16. Chapter 8 Connecting the Sun to the Home and the Utility
    1. System Installation
      1. Example Installation of a Grid-Connected PV System
      2. Preparation
      3. Preparing for the Installation
    2. Photovoltaic Modules
      1. Module Marking
      2. Wiring
      3. Tracking Modules
      4. Terminals
      5. Transition Wiring
      6. Module Connectors
      7. Array Grounding Continuity
      8. Splices
    3. Conductor Color Codes
      1. AC Wires
      2. DC Wires
    4. PV Array Ground-Fault Protection
    5. PV Array Installation and Service
    6. Grounding
      1. Definitions
      2. System Grounding
      3. Equipment Grounding
      4. AC Grounding
      5. DC Grounding
      6. Grounding Electrode
    7. Conductor Ampacity
      1. Standalone Systems—Inverters
    8. Overcurrent Protection
      1. Ampere Rating
      2. Amperes Interrupting Rating (AIR)—Short-Circuit Conditions
      3. Fusing of PV Source Circuits
      4. Standalone PV System Current-Limiting Fuses
      5. Fuse Servicing
    9. Disconnecting Means
      1. PV Array Disconnects
      2. PV Disconnect Location
      3. Equipment Disconnects
      4. Battery Disconnect
      5. Charge Controller Disconnects
      6. Ungrounded Systems
      7. Multiple Power Sources
  17. Chapter 9 The Evolving PV System: From Concept to Certification
    1. Inspection Guidelines for PV Systems
    2. Permit Guidelines for Small-Scale PV Systems
      1. Basic Site Diagram
      2. Inverter Information
      3. Module Information
      4. Battery Information
      5. PV Arrays and Array Mounting Systems
      6. Wiring and Overcurrent Protection
      7. PV System Disconnecting Means
      8. Grounding
      9. Permitting a PV System
    3. Securing a Permit
    4. Neighborhood Concerns and Homeowner Associations (HOAs)
    5. Connecting to the Grid
      1. Getting Through to the Grid
    6. Utility Interconnection Standards, Agreements, Sign-Offs, Warranties
      1. Permits and Codes
      2. Utility and Inspection Sign-offs
      3. PV System Warranties
    7. Insurance Requirements
      1. Property Damage
      2. Liability Coverage
    8. PV System Inspections
      1. Structure Attachments According to Plans and Directions
      2. Appropriate Signs Installed
    9. As-Built Drawings
  18. Chapter 10 Quality Control, Testing, Troubleshooting, Monitoring, and PV System Operations and Maintenance
    1. Maintenance
    2. Guarantees
    3. Breakdowns, Typical Faults, and Maintenance for PV Systems
      1. Maintenance
    4. Installing Subsystems and Components at the PV Site
    5. Testing and Programming Equipment
    6. Performance Inspection and Monitoring
    7. Maintaining and Troubleshooting a PV System
    8. Array and Battery Maintenance
      1. Array Maintenance
      2. Battery Maintenance
      3. Inverter and Charge Controller Maintenance
      4. Maintenance Tools and Equipment
      5. Performance Monitoring
    9. Troubleshooting
    10. Monitoring Operating Data and Presentation
    11. Internet-Based System Evaluation
    12. Web-Based Data Transmission and Evaluation
    13. Presentation and Visualization
    14. Long-Term Behavior of PV Modules
    15. Quality and Reliability of Inverters
  19. Answer Key
  20. Glossary (1/2)
  21. Glossary (2/2)
  22. References
  23. Index (1/3)
  24. Index (2/3)
  25. Index (3/3)

Product information

  • Title: Advanced Photovoltaic Installations
  • Author(s): Balfour
  • Release date: December 2011
  • Publisher(s): Jones & Bartlett Learning
  • ISBN: 9781449624729