Advanced Photovoltaic System Design

Book Description

Part of the Art and Science of Photovoltaics series High-performing photovoltaic systems require a design that produces more electricity in kilowatt hours for less cost. The growing demand for such high-performing PV systems calls for trained, skilled PV professionals. Advanced Photovoltaic System Design goes beyond the basics and provides students with the information and knowledge to understand, design, and recognize high-performance PV systems. Every step of the design process adds up incrementally to sizeable and measureable energy production increases, longer system and component lifespans, and less maintenance costs. Advanced Photovoltaic System Design emphasizes the importance of each step of the design process and proper decision-making. About the Series: The Photovoltaics (PV) industry stands on the brink of a revolution. The appeal of a new and growing industry has brought an influx of new PV professionals to the market, but the availability of educational resources has not kept pace with market demands. This gap has led to serious quality and performance issues that the industry will need to face in the decades ahead. The Art and Science of Photovoltaics series was developed to fill this education gap. Each book in the series goes beyond simple systematic processes by tackling performance challenges using a systems perspective. Readers do not learn PV design and installation steps in a vacuum; instead they gain the knowledge and expertise to understand interrelationships and discover new ways to improve their own systems and positively contribute to the industry.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Brief Contents
  5. Contents (1/2)
  6. Contents (2/2)
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1 Overview of Advanced Photovoltaic (PV) System Design and Design Criteria
    1. Grades of PV Systems
    2. Understanding Positions in the PV Field
    3. Sales, Client Requirements, Goals, and Objectives
    4. Usage and Usage Profile
    5. Budget (System Size and Economic Viability Analysis)
    6. Training/Education/Staging/Delivery
    7. Solar Resource
    8. Location
    9. Climate
    10. Altitude
    11. Shading
    12. Airflow
    13. Wind
    14. Space Available
    15. Structural Challenges
    16. Orientation
    17. Mounting
    18. Maintenance to the Structure on Which the System Is Mounted
    19. Aesthetics
    20. System Life/System Service Life
    21. Warranty
    22. Utility and Energy Production Rate Structure
    23. Chapter 1 Summary
    24. Key Concepts and Terms
    25. Chapter 1 Assessment
  9. Chapter 2 Evaluation and Design Criteria Part II
    1. Monitoring
    2. Operations and System Maintenance
      1. Serviceability of Equipment
      2. Life of Equipment
      3. Required Maintenance
    3. Cleaning (Panels, Filters, and Equipment Cavities)
      1. Panels and General Equipment Cleaning and Inspection
      2. Filters
      3. Equipment Cavities
    4. System Performance Modeling
    5. Quality of Installation
    6. Testing Schedule and Procedures
      1. Pre-commission Testing
      2. Post-commission Testing
      3. Burn-in Period Testing
      4. Monthly Monitoring
      5. Annual Testing
    7. Quality Assurance (Continual Reevaluation and Review)
    8. Service Entrance Section (SES)
    9. National and Local Electrical Codes
    10. Panels
      1. Selection
      2. Installation
    11. TÜV, UL Panel Certification, and Other Certifications
    12. Strings, String Sizing, and String Placement
    13. Inverters
      1. Transformer or Transformerless Inverters
      2. Inverter Loading
      3. Inverter Location
    14. Balance of System
    15. Wire Run and Sizing, Wire-Run Locations, and Protection
    16. Equipment Burn-In Response
    17. Chapter 2 Summary
    18. Key Concepts and Terms
    19. Chapter 2 Assessment
  10. Chapter 3 Determining the Size of a Photovoltaic System
    1. Determining the Client’s Wants, Needs, Goals, and Objectives
    2. Determining Electrical Demand
      1. Grid-Tied System
      2. Analysis Output
      3. Off-Grid Standalone Systems
    3. Load Profile
    4. Sizing Standalone PV Systems
    5. The Power Conditioning Unit (PCU)
      1. Power Conditioning Unit/Inverter Characteristics
    6. Sizing a Grid-Connected System with Battery Backup
    7. Sizing Grid-tied PV Systems
    8. Chapter 3 Summary
    9. Key Concepts and Terms
    10. Chapter 3 Assessment
  11. Chapter 4 Photovoltaic Array Configuration and Sizing
    1. The Systems Approach to PV Design
    2. PV Module/Panel Fundamentals
    3. System Sizing and Module Choice
      1. Monocrystalline Silicon
      2. Multicrystalline Silicon
      3. Amorphous Silicon
      4. Ribbon-Drawn or Pulled Silicon
      5. Thin-Film Technology
      6. Module Selection
      7. Number of Modules
    4. Photovoltaic Array Sizing
      1. Sizing the PV Array
      2. Model for Calculating the Yield of a PV Array
      3. Orientation
      4. Central Inverter Concept
      5. Module Inverter Concept
      6. Software Tools
    5. System-Modeling Tools
    6. Chapter 4 Summary
    7. Key Concepts and Terms
    8. Chapter 4 Assessment
  12. Chapter 5 Mounting Systems
    1. Mounting System Functions
    2. Mounting System Options
    3. Pole Mounts
      1. Pros and Cons
    4. Rack Mounts
      1. Pros and Cons
    5. Tracking Systems
    6. Building-Integrated PV (BIPV)
    7. Chapter 5 Summary
    8. Chapter 5 Assessment
  13. Chapter 6 Energy-Storage Device (ESD) System Design
    1. PV Battery System Design
    2. Batteries in PV Systems
      1. Battery Design and Construction
      2. Battery Types and Classifications
      3. Battery Types
      4. Lead-Acid Battery Classifications
      5. Types of Lead-Acid Batteries
      6. Lead-Acid Battery Chemistry
      7. Absorbed Glass Mat Batteries
      8. Gel Cell Batteries
      9. Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries
      10. Nickel-Cadmium Batteries
      11. Nickel-Iron Batteries
      12. Lithium-Ion Batteries
    3. Other Forms of Energy Storage
      1. Hydrolyzers
      2. Flywheel Energy Storage (FES)
      3. Battery Performance Characteristics
      4. Battery System Design and Selection Criteria
      5. Battery Subsystem Design
      6. Battery Auxiliary Equipment
      7. Battery Maintenance
      8. Battery Maintenance Requirements
      9. Battery Safety Considerations
    4. Battery Sizing
      1. Depth of Discharge
      2. Temperature Correction
      3. Rated Battery Capacity
      4. Battery Life
    5. Sizing a Battery Bank
    6. Wiring a Battery Bank
    7. Chapter 6 Summary
    8. Key Concepts and Terms
    9. Chapter 6 Assessment
  14. Chapter 7 Charge Control and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
    1. Battery Charge Controllers in Pv Systems
    2. Charge-Controller Terminology and Definitions
    3. Charge-Controller Designs
      1. Shunt Controllers
      2. Single-Stage Series Controllers
      3. Diversion Controllers
      4. Pulse-Width–modulation Controllers (PWM)
    4. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Controller Features
      1. Determining the Maximum Array Voltage
      2. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and Its Impact on Systems
    5. PV Controller System Design
    6. Voltage-Regulation Set-Point Selection
    7. Charge-Controller Selection
    8. Sizing Charge Controllers
    9. Operating Without a Charge Controller
    10. Chapter 7 Summary
    11. Key Concepts and Terms
    12. Chapter 7 Assessment
  15. Chapter 8 Inverters in System Design
    1. Grid-Connected Inverters
    2. Grid-Connected Inverter Types and Construction Sizes in Various Power Classes
    3. Self-Commutated Inverters
      1. Transformer Versus Transformerless Inverters
    4. Characteristic Curves and Properties of Grid-Connected Inverters
      1. The IV Curve and How It Affects System Performance
    5. Further Development in Grid-Connected Inverter Technology
      1. Micro Inverters and Converters
      2. Master-Slave Inverter System
    6. Pv Inverter System Design
      1. The Application of Inverters in System Design or How to Design Better Systems
    7. Wiring Symbols and Method of Operation
    8. Chapter 8 Summary
    9. Key Concepts and Terms
    10. Chapter 8 Assessment
  16. Chapter 9 Cable Wiring and Connection Systems
    1. Cable Wiring and Connection Systems
    2. Conductor Protection
    3. Module and String Labels
    4. Connection Systems
    5. DC Cable
    6. AC Connection Cable
    7. DC Disconnect Switches and Direct Current Load Switches (DC Switch)
    8. AC Disconnect Switch
    9. Miniature Circuit Breakers
    10. Fuses and Fuse Holders
    11. Ground Fault Protection
    12. Chapter 9 Summary
    13. Key Concepts and Terms
    14. Chapter 9 Assessment
  17. Chapter 10 System Monitoring, Testing, and Troubleshooting
    1. System Monitoring
      1. Guarantees
      2. System Failures
      3. Typical Faults
      4. Performance-Stealing Issues
      5. Maintenance for PV Systems
      6. Array Maintenance
      7. Battery Maintenance
      8. Inverter and Charge Controller Maintenance
      9. Maintenance Tools and Equipment
    2. System Testing
      1. Post-Installation Testing
    3. Troubleshooting
      1. Monitoring Operating Data and Presentation
      2. Internet-Based System Evaluation
      3. Web-Based Data Transmission and Evaluation
      4. Presentation and Visualization
      5. Long-Term Behavior of PV Modules
      6. Quality and Reliability of Inverters
    4. Why the Art and Science of Photovoltaics: What Does It All Mean?
    5. Chapter 10 Summary
    6. Key Concepts and Terms
    7. Chapter 10 Assessment
  18. Answer Key
  19. Glossary
  20. References
  21. Index (1/4)
  22. Index (2/4)
  23. Index (3/4)
  24. Index (4/4)

Product Information

  • Title: Advanced Photovoltaic System Design
  • Author(s): Balfour
  • Release date: December 2011
  • Publisher(s): Jones & Bartlett Learning
  • ISBN: 9781449624705