190 Advanced Process Control and Simulation for Chemical Engineers
Figure 7 present the variations in the absorption after immersion and voids as a
function of the value of sand substitutes used. The results showed that the absorption
after immersion and voids of mortar decreased as the sand content increased. It can
be concluded that, the inside porosity of mortar was decreased, when the sand content
increased in the mix. The reduction in the absorption after immersion and voids due
to the addition of sand might be due to either a good bond between the cement paste
and the sand aggregates or to the sand aggregates ne than the melamine aggregates.
13.5.3 Mix Number 3 (Determination of Water Content)
The results of compressive strength and dry density for 7 days age are shown in Fig-
ure 8. The results showed that the compressive strength and dry density of mortar
decreased as the water content increased.
FIGURE 8 Compressive strength and density for the determination of the optimum water
content (curing for 7 days).
The results of the absorption after immersion and voids tests for varying water
content are illustrated in Figure 9. The results showed that the absorption after im-
mersion and voids of mortar increased as the water content increased. It was reported
by Choi et al. [9] and Albano et al. [12] that, when the w/c ratios are higher, there is
an excess of water that does not participate in the water-cement reaction, so channels

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