Chapter 3

Lead-acid batteries for medium- and large-scale energy storage

D.G. Enos    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.


The lead-acid battery represents the oldest rechargeable battery technology. Lead-acid batteries can be found in a wide variety of applications, including small-scale power storage such as UPS systems, starting, lighting, and ignition power sources for automobiles, along with large, grid-scale power systems. While inexpensive ...

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