12.2. Molecular determinants of biogenic amine formation

The BA biosynthetic pathways are generally composed of a transport protein embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane, which is responsible for both the uptake of the precursor and the secretion of the BA; and a metabolic enzyme, which converts an amino acid into the corresponding amine by a decarboxylation reaction (Figure 12.1(a)). Exceptions are the putrescine biosynthetic pathways from agmatine or arginine, in which several enzymes are required for production of this BA (Figure 12.1(b)).
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Figure 12.1 Metabolic and transport biosynthetic pathways of biogenic amines. The pathways for histamine, ...

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