12.2. Molecular determinants of biogenic amine formation

The BA biosynthetic pathways are generally composed of a transport protein embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane, which is responsible for both the uptake of the precursor and the secretion of the BA; and a metabolic enzyme, which converts an amino acid into the corresponding amine by a decarboxylation reaction (Figure 12.1(a)). Exceptions are the putrescine biosynthetic pathways from agmatine or arginine, in which several enzymes are required for production of this BA (Figure 12.1(b)).
Figure 12.1 Metabolic and transport biosynthetic pathways of biogenic amines. The pathways for histamine, ...

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