19.3. Pre-fermentation microbiota

Wine production is therefore a continuum with respect to the emergence and disappearance of specific classes of microbes during processing of the fruit and wine. The first microbes present in the process arise pre-fermentation from the grape or winery surfaces (Bisson & Joseph, 2009). The grape berry surface is initially dominated by aerobic fungi, yeasts, and bacteria that will not persist and flourish under winemaking conditions. As the fruit matures on the vine, these species are displaced by fermentative organisms as a consequence of the greater seepage of grape components from the grape due to dehydration (Bisson & Joseph, 2009). Some of these organisms will be present upon crushing of the fruit and will ...

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