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Advances in High-Performance Motion Control of Mechatronic Systems

Book Description

Mechatronic systems are used in a range of consumer products from large-scale braking systems in vehicular agents to small-scale integrated sensors in mobile phones. To keep pace in the competitive consumer electronics industry, companies need to continuously improve servo evaluation and position control of these mechatronic systems. Advances in High-Performance Motion Control of Mechatronic Systems covers advanced control topics for mechatronic applications. In particular, the book examines control systems design for ultra-fast and ultra-precise positioning of mechanical actuators in mechatronic systems.

The book systematically describes motion control design methods for trajectory design, sampled-data precise positioning, transient control using switching control, and dual-stage actuator control. Each method is described in detail, from theoretical aspects to examples of actual industry applications including hard disk drives, optical disk drives, galvano scanners, personal mobility robots, and more. This helps readers better understand how to translate control theories and algorithms from theory to design and implementation in realistic engineering systems. The book also identifies important research directions and advanced control techniques that may provide solutions for the next generation of high-performance mechatronics.

Bridging research and industry, this book presents state-of-the-art control design methodologies that are widely applicable to industries such as manufacturing, robotics, home appliances, automobiles, printers, and optical drives. It guides readers toward more effective solutions for high-performance mechatronic systems in their own products.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. List of Figures
  8. List of Tables
  9. Preface
  10. Editors’ Biographies
  11. Contributors
  12. 1 Introduction to High-Performance Motion Control of Mecha-tronic Systems
    1. 1.1 Concept of Advances in High-Performance Motion Control of Mechatronic Systems
      1. 1.1.1 Scope of Book
      2. 1.1.2 Past Studies from High-Speed Precision Motion Control
    2. 1.2 Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) as a Classic Example
      1. 1.2.1 Mechanical Structure
      2. 1.2.2 Modeling
    3. 1.3 Brief History of HDD and Its Servo Control
      1. 1.3.1 Growth in Areal Density
      2. 1.3.2 Technological Development in Servo Control
        1. 1.3.2.1 Application of Control Theories
        2. 1.3.2.2 Improvement of Control Structure
    4. Bibliography
  13. 2 Fast Motion Control Using TDOF Control Structure and Optimal Feedforward Input
    1. 2.1 TDOF Control Structure
      1. 2.1.1 One-Degree-Of-Freedom Control System
      2. 2.1.2 Two-Degrees-Of-Freedom Control System
      3. 2.1.3 Implementation of Feedforward Input by TDOF Control Structure
    2. 2.2 Optimum Feedforward Input Design
      1. 2.2.1 Minimum Time Control
      2. 2.2.2 Minimum Jerk Input
      3. 2.2.3 Digital Implementation of Minimum Jerk Input
      4. 2.2.4 Sampled-Data Polynomial Input
    3. 2.3 Final-State Control
      1. 2.3.1 Problem Formulation
      2. 2.3.2 Minimum Jerk Input Design by FSC
      3. 2.3.3 Vibration Minimized Input Design by FSC
      4. 2.3.4 Final-State Control with Constraints
    4. 2.4 Industrial Application: Hard Disk Drives
      1. 2.4.1 HDD Benchmark Problem and the Plant Model
      2. 2.4.2 FSC and FFSC Inputs Design
    5. 2.5 Industrial Application: Galvano Scanner I
      1. 2.5.1 Plant Model
      2. 2.5.2 FSC and FFSC Inputs Design
      3. 2.5.3 Simulation Results
      4. 2.5.4 Experimental Results
    6. 2.6 Industrial Application: Galvano Scanner II
      1. 2.6.1 Voltage Saturation in Current Amplifier
      2. 2.6.2 FSC Design Considering Voltage Saturation in Current Amplifier
      3. 2.6.3 Application to Galvano Scanner Control Problem
    7. Bibliography
  14. 3 Transient Control Using Initial Value Compensation
    1. 3.1 Introduction
      1. 3.1.1 Background
      2. 3.1.2 Initial Value Compensation (IVC)
    2. 3.2 Overview of Switching Control
    3. 3.3 Design of IVC
      1. 3.3.1 Design of Initial Values on Feedback Controller
      2. 3.3.2 Design of Additional Input to Controller
      3. 3.3.3 Design of Optimal Switching Condition
    4. 3.4 Industrial Applications 1 (IVC for Mode Switching)
      1. 3.4.1 HDD (Reduction of Acoustic Noise)
      2. 3.4.2 Robot (Personal Mobility Robot)
        1. 3.4.2.1 Introduction
        2. 3.4.2.2 Mathematical Model
        3. 3.4.2.3 Design of IVC
        4. 3.4.2.4 Experimental Results
      3. 3.4.3 Optical Disk Drive
    5. 3.5 Industrial Applications 2 (IVC for reference switching)
      1. 3.5.1 Galvano Mirror for Laser Drilling Machine
        1. 3.5.1.1 Introduction
        2. 3.5.1.2 Mathematical Model
        3. 3.5.1.3 Design of IVC
        4. 3.5.1.4 Experimental Results
    6. 3.6 Conclusion
    7. Bibliography
  15. 4 Precise Positioning Control in Sampled-Data Systems
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Sensitivity and Complementary Sensitivity Transfer Functions in Sampled-Data Control Systems
      1. 4.2.1 Relationship Between Continuous- and Discrete-Time Signals
      2. 4.2.2 Sensitivity and Complementary Sensitivity Transfer Functions in Sampled-Data Control Systems
      3. 4.2.3 Sampled-Data Control System Using a Multi-Rate Digital Filter
    3. 4.3 Unobservable Oscillations in Sampled-Data Positioning Systems
      1. 4.3.1 Relationship Between Oscillation Frequency and Unob-servable Magnitude of Oscillations
        1. 4.3.1.1 Definition of Unobservable Magnitude of Oscillations
        2. 4.3.1.2 Oscillations at the Sampling Frequency
        3. 4.3.1.3 Oscillations at the Nyquist Frequency
        4. 4.3.1.4 Oscillations at One-Third of the Sampling Frequency
      2. 4.3.2 Unobservable Magnitudes of Oscillations with Damping
        1. 4.3.2.1 Definition of Unobservable Magnitudes of Oscillations with Damping
        2. 4.3.2.2 Example of Unobservable Magnitudes for Oscillations with Damping
        3. 4.3.2.3 Index of Unobservable Magnitudes
    4. 4.4 Residual Vibrations in Sampled-Data Positioning Control Systems
      1. 4.4.1 Residual Vibration Analysis Based on SRS Analysis
        1. 4.4.1.1 SRS Analysis
        2. 4.4.1.2 SRS Analysis Using Half-Sine Wave
        3. 4.4.1.3 SRS Analysis Using Polynomial Wave
        4. 4.4.1.4 Comparison between SRS and DFT
    5. 4.5 Hard Disk Drive Example
      1. 4.5.1 Head-Positioning Control System
        1. 4.5.1.1 Controlled Object
      2. 4.5.2 Sensitivity and Complementary Sensitivity Transfer Functions
        1. 4.5.2.1 Design of Control System
        2. 4.5.2.2 Simulation and Experiment
      3. 4.5.3 Unobservable Oscillations
      4. 4.5.4 Residual Vibrations
        1. 4.5.4.1 Feedback Control System
        2. 4.5.4.2 Feedforward Control System
        3. 4.5.4.3 SRS Analysis
        4. 4.5.4.4 Simulation and Experimental Results
    6. Bibliography
  16. 5 Dual-Stage Systems and Control
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 System Identification of Dual-Stage Actuators in HDDs
      1. 5.2.1 Primary Actuator: VCM
        1. 5.2.1.1 Continuous-Time Measurement
        2. 5.2.1.2 Discrete-Time Measurement
      2. 5.2.2 Secondary Actuator: PZT Active Suspension
        1. 5.2.2.1 Continuous-Time Measurement
        2. 5.2.2.2 Discrete-Time Measurement
    3. 5.3 Resonance Compensation Without Extraneous Sensors
      1. 5.3.1 Gain Stabilization
      2. 5.3.2 Inverse Compensation
      3. 5.3.3 Phase Stabilization
        1. 5.3.3.1 Using Mechanical Resonant Modes
        2. 5.3.3.2 Using LTI Peak Filters
        3. 5.3.3.3 Using LTV Peak Filters
      4. 5.3.4 Experimental Verifications
    4. 5.4 Resonance Compensation With Extraneous Sensors
      1. 5.4.1 Active Damping
      2. 5.4.2 Self-Sensing Actuation (SSA)
        1. 5.4.2.1 Direct-Driven SSA (DDSSA)
        2. 5.4.2.2 Indirect-Driven SSA (IDSSA)
      3. 5.4.3 Model-Based Design
      4. 5.4.4 Non-Model-Based Design
    5. 5.5 Dual-Stage Controller Design
      1. 5.5.1 Control Structure
        1. 5.5.1.1 Parallel
        2. 5.5.1.2 Coupled Master-Slave (CMS)
        3. 5.5.1.3 Decoupled Master-Slave (DMS)
      2. 5.5.2 Design Example
        1. 5.5.2.1 Primary Actuator Controller: VCM Loop
        2. 5.5.2.2 Secondary Actuator Controller: PZT Active Suspension Loop
      3. 5.5.3 Simulation Results
    6. 5.6 Conclusion
    7. Bibliography
  17. 6 Concluding Remarks from Editors
    1. 6.1 Transferring Technologies to Other Industries (T. Yamaguchi)
      1. 6.1.1 What is High-Speed Precision Motion Control?
      2. 6.1.2 Sensing and Closing the Loop: Shifting Resource Power to a Right Field
      3. 6.1.3 Control Structure: Generating New Design Parameters
      4. 6.1.4 Modeling: Necessity of Precise Disturbance Modeling
      5. 6.1.5 Summary
    2. 6.2 What Can We Do when the Positioning Accuracy Reaches a Limit? (M. Hirata)
      1. 6.2.1 Motivation
      2. 6.2.2 Support Vector Machine
      3. 6.2.3 Application to the Head-Positioning Control Problem in HDDs
        1. 6.2.3.1 Approach
        2. 6.2.3.2 Plant Model
        3. 6.2.3.3 Training the Discriminant Function
        4. 6.2.3.4 Validation
      4. 6.2.4 Summary
    3. 6.3 Control Constraints and Specifications (C. K. Pang)
      1. 6.3.1 Constraints and Limitations
        1. 6.3.1.1 Anti-Resonant Zeros
        2. 6.3.1.2 Resonant Poles
        3. 6.3.1.3 Sensitivity Transfer Function
        4. 6.3.1.4 Limitations on Positioning Accuracy
      2. 6.3.2 Bode’s Integral Theorem
        1. 6.3.2.1 Continuous Bode’s Integral Theorem
        2. 6.3.2.2 Discrete Bode’s Integral Theorem
      3. 6.3.3 Summary
    4. Bibliography
  18. Index