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Advances in Steam Turbines for Modern Power Plants

Book Description

Advances in Steam Turbines for Modern Power Plants provides an authoritative review of steam turbine design optimization, analysis and measurement, the development of steam turbine blades, and other critical components, including turbine retrofitting and steam turbines for renewable power plants.

As a very large proportion of the world’s electricity is currently generated in systems driven by steam turbines, (and will most likely remain the case in the future) with steam turbines operating in fossil-fuel, cogeneration, combined cycle, integrated gasification combined cycle, geothermal, solar thermal, and nuclear plants across the world, this book provides a comprehensive assessment of the research and work that has been completed over the past decades.

  • Presents an in-depth review on steam turbine design optimization, analysis, and measurement
  • Written by a range of experts in the area
  • Provides an overview of turbine retrofitting and advanced applications in power generation

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Part I: Steam Turbine Cycles and Cycle Design Optimization
    1. 1. Introduction to steam turbines for power plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 1.1 Features of steam turbines
      3. 1.2 Roles of steam turbines in power generation
      4. 1.3 Technology trends of steam turbines
      5. 1.4 The aim of this book
      6. References
    2. 2. Steam turbine cycles and cycle design optimization: The Rankine cycle, thermal power cycles, and IGCC power plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Basic cycles of steam turbine plants
      4. 2.3 Types of steam turbines
      5. 2.4 Various steam turbine cycles and technologies to improve thermal efficiency
      6. 2.5 Conclusion
      7. References
    3. 3. Steam turbine cycles and cycle design optimization: Advanced ultra-supercritical thermal power plants and nuclear power plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 A-USC thermal power plants
      4. 3.3 Nuclear power plants
      5. 3.4 Conclusion
      6. References
    4. 4. Steam turbine cycles and cycle design optimization: Combined cycle power plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Definitions
      3. 4.2 Introduction to combined cycle power plants
      4. 4.3 Combined cycle thermodynamics
      5. 4.4 Markets served
      6. 4.5 Major plant systems overview
      7. 4.6 Combined cycles trends
      8. 4.7 Conclusion
      9. References
    5. 5. Steam turbine life cycle cost evaluations and comparison with other power systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Cost estimation and comparison with other power systems
      4. 5.3 Technological learning
      5. 5.4 The modeling of technological learning
      6. 5.5 Conclusions
      7. References
  7. Part II: Steam Turbine Analysis, Measurement and Monitoring for Design Optimization
    1. 6. Design and analysis for aerodynamic efficiency enhancement of steam turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Overview of losses in steam turbines
      4. 6.3 Overview of aerodynamic design of steam turbines
      5. 6.4 Design and analysis for aerodynamic efficiency enhancement
      6. 6.5 Future trends
      7. 6.6 Conclusions
      8. References
    2. 7. Steam turbine rotor design and rotor dynamics analysis
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Categories of steam turbine rotor vibration
      3. 7.2 Mechanical design of steam turbine rotors
      4. 7.3 Measurement of, and guidelines for, rotor vibration
      5. References
    3. 8. Steam turbine design for load-following capability and highly efficient partial operation
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Solution for grid code requirement
      4. 8.3 LFC of thermal power plants
      5. 8.4 Current capacity of thermal power governor-free operation and LFC
      6. 8.5 Over load valve
      7. 8.6 Conclusion
      8. References
    4. 9. Analysis and design of wet-steam stages
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Basic theory and governing equations
      4. 9.3 Numerical methods
      5. 9.4 Measurement methods
      6. 9.5 Design considerations
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. Notation
      9. Greek symbols
      10. Subscripts
      11. References
    5. 10. Solid particle erosion analysis and protection design for steam turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Susceptible area of erosion
      4. 10.3 Considerations on boiler design and plant design
      5. 10.4 Considerations on turbine design and operation mode
      6. 10.5 Result of erosion
      7. 10.6 Considerations of parameters on erosion and countermeasure
      8. Conclusions
      9. References
    6. 11. Steam turbine monitoring technology, validation, and verification tests for power plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction to power plant testing and monitoring
      3. 11.2 Performance type testing
      4. 11.3 Steam turbine component-type testing
      5. 11.4 Steam turbine monitoring
      6. 11.5 Summary
      7. 11.6 Power plant testing—a look ahead
      8. References
  8. Part III: Development of Materials, Blades and Important Parts of Steam Turbines
    1. 12. Development in materials for ultra-supercritical (USC) and advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Efficiency improvement of ultra-supercritical and advanced ultra-supercritical turbines
      4. 12.3 Material development for ultra-supercritical steam turbines
      5. 12.4 Material development for advanced ultra-supercritical steam turbines
      6. Conclusions
      7. References
    2. 13. Development of last-stage long blades for steam turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Design space for last-stage long blade development
      4. 13.3 Main features of modern last-stage blades
      5. 13.4 Design methodology for last-stage long blades
      6. 13.5 Model turbine tests and measurements
      7. 13.6 Conclusions
      8. References
    3. 14. Introduction of new sealing technologies for steam turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Flowpath interstage seals
      4. Conclusions
      5. References
    4. 15. Introduction of advanced technologies for steam turbine bearings
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Geometry of oil-film bearing
      3. 15.2 Bearing design
      4. 15.3 Journal bearing testing
      5. 15.4 Thrust bearing testing
      6. 15.5 Bearing coating materials
      7. 15.6 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    5. 16. Manufacturing technologies for key steam turbine parts
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Manufacturing documentation
      4. 16.3 Castings and forgings
      5. 16.4 Casings
      6. 16.5 Rotors
      7. 16.6 Blade manufacture
      8. 16.7 Inspection technologies
      9. 16.8 Conclusion
      10. References
  9. Part IV: Turbine Retrofitting and Advanced Applications in Power Generation
    1. 17. Steam turbine retrofitting for the life extension of power plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Comprehensive maintenance planning and new technologies for steam turbine retrofitting
      3. 17.2 Age deterioration and lifetime of the steam turbine
      4. 17.3 Outline of retrofitting for life extension
      5. 17.4 Technology for higher efficiency and other benefits
      6. 17.5 Summary
      7. References
    2. 18. Steam turbine retrofitting for power increase and efficiency enhancement
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Overview
      3. 18.2 Nomenclature
      4. 18.3 Introduction
      5. 18.4 Improvement of plant performance
      6. 18.5 Key development processes
      7. 18.6 High-pressure and intermediate-pressure turbine retrofits
      8. 18.7 Low-pressure turbine retrofits
      9. 18.8 Summary
      10. References
    3. 19. Advanced geothermal steam turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Construction of modern geothermal steam turbines
      4. 19.3 Technologies to enhance reliability of geothermal steam turbines
      5. 19.4 Technologies to enhance performance of geothermal turbines
      6. 19.5 Operational experiences and lessons learned
      7. 19.6 Future view of geothermal power generation and challenges
      8. References
    4. 20. Steam turbines for solar thermal and other renewable energies
      1. Abstract
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Pilot plant of solar thermal and biomass binary generation system in Japan
      4. 20.3 The steam turbine for solar thermal technology
      5. 20.4 Steam turbine for organic Rankine cycle
      6. 20.5 Future applications
      7. References
    5. 21. Advanced ultra-supercritical pressure (A-USC) steam turbines and their combination with carbon capture and storage systems (CCS)
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Advanced ultra-supercritical turbine
      4. 21.3 Carbon capture technology
      5. 21.4 Combination of advanced ultra-supercritical turbine and CCS
      6. Conclusions
      7. References
    6. 22. Steam turbine roles and necessary technologies for stabilization of the electricity grid in the renewable energy era
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 The issue of the renewable energy era
      4. 22.3 Requirements of the steam-turbine power-generation system
      5. 22.4 Innovation and future technologies
      6. References
  10. Index