Konstantin K. Veremeenko
Moscow Aviation Institute (State Technical University), Russia
The problem of determining a direction of movement or a direction to a desired point on the Earth has been known from very ancient times, and observation of the stars was probably the first approach to solving the problem. It is well known that to determine North may be accomplished by observing the North Star (Polaris) in the Northern Hemisphere, or in the Southern Hemisphere by observing two stars in the Southern Cross constellation (Crixa). Over the ages, mankind has sought and improved methods of solving this problem and has created special devices, to wit, compasses—instruments that point in the direction of the ...