v
Contents
Preface.................................................................................................................... xiii
Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................xv
About the Author ...................................................................................................xvii
Chapter 1 Air Pollution Control 101 .....................................................................1
1.1 It Is Separation Technology ....................................................... 1
1.2 Wet Collection of Particulate ....................................................4
1.3 Dry Collection ...........................................................................7
1.4 Gas Absorption .......................................................................... 8
1.4.1 Concept of “Number of Transfer Units” in
Absorption .................................................................. 10
1.4.2 The Transfer Unit Concept in Gas Absorption .......... 11
Dan Dickeson
1.5 Hybrid Systems ........................................................................ 14
Chapter 2 Adsorption Devices ............................................................................ 19
2.1 Device Type .............................................................................19
2.2 Typical Applications and Uses ................................................19
2.3 Operating Principles ................................................................ 19
2.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ..................................................... 21
2.5 Design Basics........................................................................... 21
2.6 Operating Suggestions ............................................................. 25
Chapter 3 Bioreactors ..........................................................................................27
Dr. Robert Richardson
3.1 Device Types ...........................................................................27
3.2 Typical Applications and Uses ................................................28
3.3 Operating Principles ................................................................30
3.4 Primary Mechanisms Used .....................................................32
3.5 Design Basics...........................................................................33
3.6 Operating Suggestions ............................................................. 34
3.6.1 Biotrickling Filter Technology ................................... 34
3.6.2 Aerobic Digester Technology ..................................... 35
3.6.3 Bioscrubber Technology .............................................36
Chapter 4 Dry Cyclone Collectors ...................................................................... 37
4.1 Device Type ............................................................................. 37
4.2 Typical Applications and Uses ................................................37
vi Contents
4.3 Operating Principles ................................................................40
4.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ..................................................... 41
4.5 Design Basics...........................................................................42
4.6 Operating/Application Suggestions ......................................... 45
Chapter 5 Electrostatic Precipitators ..................................................................49
Bob Taylor
5.1 Device Type ............................................................................. 49
5.2 Typical Applications and Uses ................................................49
5.3 Operating Principles ................................................................ 53
5.4 Primary Mechanisms Used .....................................................57
5.5 Creation of Charge ..................................................................57
5.5.1 Field Charging ............................................................57
5.5.2 Diffusion Charging ....................................................57
5.6 Design Basics...........................................................................58
5.7 Resistivity of Dust ...................................................................58
5.8 Operating Suggestions ............................................................. 60
5.8.1 Air Load/Gas Load Testing ........................................60
5.8.2 Alignment ...................................................................60
5.8.3 Thermal Expansion .................................................... 61
5.8.4 Air In-Leakage ........................................................... 61
5.8.5 Rapping ...................................................................... 61
5.8.6 Insulator Cleaning ...................................................... 62
5.8.7 Purge Heater and Ring Heater Systems .....................62
5.8.8 Process Temperature .................................................. 62
5.8.9 Fuel Changes ..............................................................62
Chapter 6 Evaporative Coolers ...........................................................................65
Wayne T. Hartshorn
6.1 Device Type ............................................................................. 65
6.2 Typical Applications and Uses ................................................65
6.3 Primary Mechanisms Used .....................................................65
6.4 Design Basics...........................................................................66
6.4.1 Types of Gas Cooling ................................................. 66
6.4.2 Gas Conditioning........................................................67
6.4.3 Basic Sizing ................................................................ 69
6.4.4 All-Important Atomization ........................................72
6.4.5 Case History Example ................................................76
6.4.6 Cost Considerations ....................................................77
6.5 Operating Suggestions .............................................................78
viiContents
Chapter 7 Fabric Filter Collectors ....................................................................... 81
Deny Claffey, Michael Claffey, and Jerry Childress
7.1 Device Type ............................................................................. 81
7.2 Typical Applications and Uses ................................................81
7.3 Operating Principles ................................................................83
7.4 Primary Mechanisms Used .....................................................85
7.5 Design Basics...........................................................................86
7.6 Operating Suggestions ............................................................. 94
Chapter 8 Fiberbed Filters ..................................................................................97
Joe Mayo
8.1 Device Type ............................................................................. 97
8.2 Typical Applications and Uses ................................................97
8.2.1 Acid Mist .................................................................... 97
8.2.2 Asphalt Processing ..................................................... 98
8.2.3 Plasticizer/Vinyl/PVC Processing ..............................98
8.2.4 Coating/Laminating ...................................................99
8.2.5 Electronics .................................................................. 99
8.2.6 Textile Processing.......................................................99
8.2.7 Metalworking ........................................................... 101
8.2.8 Lube Oil Vents and Reservoirs ................................ 101
8.2.9 Incinerator Emissions ............................................... 101
8.2.10 Internal Combustion Engine Crankcase Vents ........ 103
8.2.11 Precious Metal Recovery ......................................... 103
8.2.12 Vacuum Pumps ......................................................... 103
8.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 104
8.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ................................................... 105
8.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 105
8.6 Operating/Application Suggestions ....................................... 107
8.6.1 Filter Cleaning .......................................................... 107
8.6.2 Fiberbed Filter Life ..................................................107
8.6.3 Fire Protection if the Contaminant Is
Combustible ........................................................ 108
Chapter 9 Filament (MeshPad) Scrubbers ....................................................... 109
9.1 Device Type ...........................................................................109
9.2 Typical Applications ..............................................................109
9.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 111
9.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ................................................... 111
9.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 111
9.6 Operating Suggestions ........................................................... 114
viii Contents
Chapter 10 Fluidized Bed Scrubbers .................................................................. 115
10.1 Device Type ........................................................................... 115
10.2 Typical Applications and Uses .............................................. 115
10.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 116
10.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ................................................... 121
10.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 121
10.6 Operating Suggestions ...........................................................122
Chapter 11 Mechanically Aided Scrubbers ........................................................125
11.1 Device Type ...........................................................................125
11.2 Typical Applications and Uses ..............................................125
11.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 126
11.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ...................................................128
11.5 Design Basics.........................................................................129
11.6 Operating Suggestions ...........................................................129
Chapter 12 Packed Towers .................................................................................. 131
12.1 Device Type ........................................................................... 131
12.2 Typical Applications and Uses .............................................. 131
12.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 132
12.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ...................................................136
12.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 136
12.5.1 Counterow .............................................................. 136
12.5.2 Crossow .................................................................. 139
12.6 Operating Suggestions ...........................................................139
Chapter 13 Settling Chambers ............................................................................ 141
13.1 Device Type ........................................................................... 141
13.2 Typical Applications and Uses .............................................. 141
13.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 141
13.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ................................................... 142
13.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 143
13.6 Operating/Application Suggestions ....................................... 144
Chapter 14 Spray Towers/Scrubbers ................................................................... 145
14.1 Device Type ........................................................................... 145
14.2 Typical Applications and Uses .............................................. 145
14.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 145
14.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ................................................... 147
14.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 149
14.6 Operating Suggestions ...........................................................150
ixContents
Chapter 15 Thermal Nitrogen Oxide (NO
x
) Control .......................................... 153
Joseph Colannino
15.1 Device Type ........................................................................... 153
15.2 Typical Applications and Uses: Combustion Sources ........... 153
15.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 153
15.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ...................................................154
15.5 Design Basics.........................................................................154
15.5.1 Different Forms of NO
x
............................................154
15.5.2 NO
x
Measurement Units...........................................154
15.5.3 Thermal NO
x
............................................................ 155
15.5.4 Fuel-Bound NO
x
....................................................... 157
15.6 Thermal-NO
x
Control Strategies ........................................... 159
15.7 Dilution Strategies ................................................................. 159
15.8 Staging Strategies .................................................................. 160
15.9 Postcombustion Strategies ..................................................... 160
15.10 Operating/Application Suggestions ....................................... 162
Chapter 16 Thermal Oxidizers ........................................................................... 163
Dan Banks
16.1 Device Type ........................................................................... 163
16.2 Typical Applications .............................................................. 163
16.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 163
16.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ...................................................164
16.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 166
16.6 Operating Suggestions ........................................................... 171
Chapter 17 Tray Scrubbers ................................................................................. 173
17.1 Device Type ........................................................................... 173
17.2 Typical Applications and Uses .............................................. 173
17.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 173
17.4 Primary Mechanism Used ..................................................... 177
17.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 177
17.6 Operating Suggestions ........................................................... 178
Chapter 18 Vane Type Scrubbers ........................................................................ 181
18.1 Device Type ........................................................................... 181
18.2 Typical Applications .............................................................. 181
18.3 Operating Principles .............................................................. 181
18.4 Primary Mechanisms Used ................................................... 182
18.5 Design Basics......................................................................... 185
18.6 Operating Suggestions ........................................................... 186

Get Air Pollution Control Equipment Selection Guide, 2nd Edition now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.