New instrumentation amplifiers that maximize output swing on low voltage supplies are described.
Instrumentation amplifiers suffer from a chronic output swing problem, even when the input common mode range and output voltage swing specifications are not violated. This is because the first stage of an instrumentation amplifier has internal output voltages that can clip at unspecified levels. The clipping itself is invisible to the user, but it affects the output swing adversely, usually causing a gain reduction and thus an invalid result. The new ...