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Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Book Description

Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence-Based Assessment and Treatment begins with a general overview of the history of research on anxiety in ASD and the path towards evidence-based assessment and treatment methods. Thereafter, chapters focus on the nature of ASD and anxiety comorbidity, the assessment of anxiety in ASD, and its treatment. Later chapters are devoted to future directions for research on this topic, including a discussion of anxiety assessment and treatment for adults and minimally verbal individuals.

Anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can cause substantial distress and impairment over and above that caused by ASD alone. Emerging research on genetic, psychological, psychophysiological, and psychometric aspects of ASD establish anxiety as a valid and necessary treatment target in this population.

This book is designed to help a broad array of providers who work with children with ASD understand cutting-edge, empirically supported treatments for anxiety, including specific treatment plans and strategies.

  • Presents a balanced discussion of the scientific literature on anxiety in ASD
  • Provides a pragmatic, clinically applied focus that gives readers a ‘how-to’ guide for the treatment of anxiety in ASD
  • Considers the distinct ways in which anxiety presents in children and adolescents with ASD and the challenges this presents to assessment and treatment
  • Examines emerging areas of anxiety assessment and treatment research in ASD

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. List of Contributors
  7. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. Abstract
    2. References
  8. Chapter 2. Prevalence of Anxiety in Autism Spectrum Disorders
    1. Abstract
    2. Autism Spectrum Disorder
    3. Anxiety
    4. Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders in the General Population
    5. Anxiety in ASD
    6. Prevalence Rates of Anxiety in ASD
    7. Factors Associated With Anxiety in ASD
    8. Implications
    9. References
  9. Chapter 3. Phenomenology and Presentation of Anxiety in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    1. Abstract
    2. Methodologies Employed in Studying the Phenomenology and Presentation of Anxiety in ASD
    3. Findings From Qualitative Studies
    4. Findings From Quantitative Studies
    5. Shared and Distinct Anxiety Presentations in ASD by Anxiety Type
    6. Anxiety/Fears/Worries Associated With Core ASD Symptomatology
    7. Factors Associated with Traditional and Distinct Anxiety Symptomatology
    8. Future Directions and Implications for Research and Practice
    9. Acknowledgments
    10. Vignette 1—“Traditional” presentation: separation and generalized anxiety
    11. Vignette 2—“Distinct” presentation: anxiety around change
    12. References
  10. Chapter 4. Neurobiological Mechanisms of Anxiety in ASD
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. The Relationship Between Amygdala, Anxiety, and ASD
    4. Amygdala, Prefrontal Cortex, and Brain Connectivity in ASD
    5. The Brain in Context: The Autonomic Nervous System in Anxiety and ASD
    6. Conclusions and Future Directions
    7. References
  11. Chapter 5. Assessment of Anxiety in Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder
    1. Abstract
    2. Assessment of Anxiety in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    3. Clinical Assessment of Anxiety in ASD
    4. Tools for Assessing Anxiety in ASD
    5. Clinical Interviews
    6. Clinician-Rated Symptom Measures
    7. Direct Observation
    8. Physiological Measures
    9. Multimethod Assessment of Anxiety in Youth With ASD
    10. Case Example
    11. Conclusion
    12. References
  12. Chapter 6. Cognitive-Behavioral Principles and Their Applications Within Autism Spectrum Disorder
    1. Abstract
    2. CBT for Anxiety in Typically Developing Children
    3. Psychoeducation
    4. Relaxation and Somatic Management
    5. Cognitive Restructuring
    6. Problem Solving
    7. Exposure
    8. Treatment of Anxious Children With ASD
    9. Modifying CBT for Children With ASD
    10. Estimated Efficacy of CBT for Children With ASD
    11. Suggestions for Specific Modifications of CBT for Children With ASD
    12. Additional Options for Treatment
    13. Group Therapy
    14. Future Directions and Applications
    15. References
  13. Chapter 7. Individual CBT for Anxiety and Related Symptoms in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
    1. Abstract
    2. Use of Unproven Treatments by Parents and Professionals
    3. Summary of EBT Classification System
    4. Method
    5. Results
    6. Discussion
    7. References
  14. Chapter 8. Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children and Adolescents With Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorders
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Group Treatment for Youth With ASD—Initial Focus
    4. Determining Treatment Focus—Social Skills or Anxiety-Based Interventions?
    5. Group Therapy for Anxiety in Youth With ASD
    6. Challenges/Recommendations for Conducting Group Therapy With Youth With ASD and Anxiety
    7. Summary
    8. Future Directions
    9. Acknowledgments
    10. References
  15. Chapter 9. Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Prevalence and Clinical Presentation
    4. Evidence-Informed Assessment of Anxiety in Adults With ASD
    5. Targeting Key Mechanisms
    6. Basic Processes Underlying Anxiety in ASD
    7. Emotion Regulation
    8. Mindfulness and Acceptance
    9. Behavioral Treatments
    10. Extant Research in Adults With ASD
    11. Primary Modifications to Behavioral Treatments for Adults With ASD and Anxiety
    12. Medical/Pharmacological Treatments
    13. Primary Modifications to Medical Treatments of Anxiety in ASD
    14. Looking Forward: Next Steps in Research and Practice
    15. References
  16. Chapter 10. Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety in Minimally Verbal Children With ASD
    1. Abstract
    2. Diagnosis
    3. Behavioral Assessment
    4. Behavioral Interviews
    5. Standardized Rating Forms
    6. Direct Observation
    7. Caregiver Anxiety and Its Role in Child Anxiety
    8. Behavioral Treatment
    9. Graduated Exposure and Reinforcement
    10. Additional Treatment Components
    11. Caregiver Involvement
    12. References
  17. Chapter 11. Anxiety and ASD in Schools: School-Related Issues and Individualized Education Programs
    1. Abstract
    2. Overview
    3. Clinical Diagnosis and Educational Classification of ASD
    4. Anxiety and ASD in Schools
    5. School-Based Assessment of Anxiety
    6. Intervention Development, Implementation, and Monitoring Using the IEP
    7. Conclusion
    8. Funding Acknowledgment
    9. References
  18. Chapter 12. Dissemination and Implementation of Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety in ASD
    1. Abstract
    2. Gaps Between Research and Routine Care for Anxiety in Youth With Autism
    3. Developing Effective Anxiety Interventions for Youth With Autism
    4. Implementing Existing Anxiety Interventions With Youth With Autism
    5. Adapted EPIS Model of Implementation
    6. The ACT SMART Implementation Toolkit
    7. Conclusion
    8. References
  19. Index