O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Apple Training Series Xsan 2 Administration: A Guide to Designing, Deploying, and Maintaining Xsan

Book Description

Xsan is a 64-bit cluster file system specifically designed for small and large computing environments that demand the highest level of data availability. This book takes an in-depth look at Xsan 2 components, requirements, topologies, and installation challenges. System administrators and other IT professionals will learn about storage and network terminology; about the deployment options offered by Xsan 2 and how to plan a deployment; how to identify the basic structure of Xsan volumes; how to work with client and server configurations; how to manage failover; and about controlling user access to SAN volumes.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. Getting Started
    1. The Methodology
      1. Course Structure
    2. System Requirements
    3. Certification
    4. About the Apple Training Series
  4. 1. Concepts: Understanding Storage Area Networks
    1. Storage Networking Architectures
      1. Direct-Attached Storage (DAS)
      2. Network-Attached Storage (NAS)
      3. Limitations of DAS and NAS Solutions
      4. Storage Area Network (SAN)
    2. Benefits of Storage Area Networking
      1. High-Performance, Concurrent File Sharing
      2. Network-Based Storage Management
      3. Eliminating Single Points of Failure
      4. Flexible SAN Topology
      5. The Benefits of Consolidated Storage
      6. Why a SAN File System?
    3. Why Use a Cluster File System?
    4. Understanding Fibre Channel
      1. Why Use Fibre Channel for Xsan?
      2. Fibre Channel Terminology
      3. Nodes
      4. Interconnects
      5. Initiators and Targets
      6. Ports
      7. Links
    5. Fibre Channel and Protocols
      1. Comparing Protocols
      2. Fibre Channel and Ethernet
      3. Fibre Channel and iSCSI
      4. Fibre Channel and Infiniband
      5. Fibre Channel and IP
    6. How Fibre Channel Works with Networks
      1. Network Limits and Characteristics
    7. Understanding Fibre Channel Topologies
      1. Fibre Channel Addressing
      2. Switched Fabric Topology
      3. Fibre Channel Hubs and Switches
    8. Understanding Xsan
    9. How the Xsan Cluster File System Works
      1. Disk File Systems
      2. Local File Systems
      3. Network File Systems
      4. Distributed File Systems
      5. Cluster File Systems
    10. Understanding Metadata
      1. Metadata and File Systems
      2. Xsan Metadata Storage and Controllers
    11. Using a Metadata Ethernet Network
      1. Asymmetric Virtualization
      2. Why Two Separate Ethernet Networks?
      3. Equipment Specifications for Metadata Network
    12. Understanding the Xsan 2 Volume Structure
      1. How Xsan Storage Is Organized
      2. LUNs
      3. Storage Pools
      4. Affinities
      5. Volumes
      6. Folders with Affinities
    13. What’s New in Xsan 2
      1. Intuitive Setup and Management
      2. Simplified Setup
      3. Integration with Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server
      4. Intuitive Remote Administration Tools
      5. File System Capabilities
      6. The Xsan Cluster File System
      7. High-Availability Features
      8. Metadata Controller Failover
      9. Fibre Channel Multipathing
      10. File System Journaling
      11. MultiSAN
      12. Volume Management
      13. Data Access Control
        1. Volume mapping
        2. Directory integration
        3. Control over access permissions
        4. Disk quotas
      14. Compatibility and Interoperability
    14. What You’ve Learned
    15. References
      1. Administration Guides
      2. Apple Knowledge Base Documents
    16. Review Questions
      1. Answers
  5. 2. Planning Xsan Deployments
    1. Choosing Xsan Components
      1. Supported Computers
      2. Supported Storage Devices
      3. Fibre Channel Fabric
      4. Ethernet TCP/IP Network
      5. Directory Services
      6. Outgoing Mail Service
    2. Configuring Clients
      1. Base Systems
      2. Memory
      3. Supported Operating Systems
    3. Considering Network Devices and Connections
      1. Setting Up a Fibre Channel Network
      2. Choosing Copper or Fiber Optic Cables
      3. Using Critical Connectors
      4. Selecting Fibre Channel Switches
      5. Planning the Ethernet TCP/IP Network
      6. Using a Public Ethernet Network
      7. Using a Private Metadata Ethernet Network
    4. Planning Storage
      1. Understanding Xserve RAID
      2. Understanding Promise VTrak
    5. Planning Network Services
      1. Setting Up a Domain Name Service
      2. Using a Network Time Server
      3. Administering Mail Services
    6. Providing Directory Services
    7. Configuring Xsan Volumes
      1. Choosing Storage Capacity
      2. Displaying Available Storage
      3. Managing Workflow
      4. Optimizing Performance
      5. Setting the Controller-to-LUN Ratio
      6. Evaluating Availability
      7. Enforcing Security
    8. Choosing RAID Levels for LUNs
      1. Selecting RAID Levels for Xsan
    9. Choosing the Number of Volumes
      1. Organizing a Volume
    10. Choosing Metadata Controllers
      1. Selecting Primary and Standby Metadata Controllers
      2. Combining Clients and Controllers
    11. Choosing the Volume Configuration
      1. Assigning LUNs to Affinity Tags
      2. Choosing Where to Store Metadata and Journaling Data
      3. Choosing an Allocation Strategy
      4. Choosing the Stripe Breadth
      5. Choosing the Block Allocation Size
      6. Choosing the Number of Storage Pools
    12. What You’ve Learned
    13. References
      1. Administration Guides
      2. Apple Knowledge Base Documents
    14. Review Questions
      1. Answers
  6. 3. Deployment
    1. Configuring Ethernet Networks
    2. Setting Up Network Services
      1. Configuring a DNS Server
      2. Running a Network Time Server
    3. Setting Up Directory Services
    4. Creating Users and Groups
      1. Creating a User Account
      2. Creating a Group Account
      3. Adding a User to a Group Account
    5. Configuring a Fibre Channel Network
      1. Choosing a Fibre Channel Switch
      2. Connecting to a Fibre Channel switch
      3. Configuring Administrator Account Preferences
      4. Configuring a Network Interface
      5. Configuring I/O Stream Guard and Device Scan
      6. Using Zoning
    6. Setting Up the Storage Devices
      1. Choosing RAID Levels for Xsan
      2. Selecting Controller-to-LUN Ratio
    7. Using Xserve RAID
      1. Creating a LUN
      2. Tuning RAID Performance
    8. Using Promise VTrak
      1. Connecting with VTrak
      2. Changing VTrak Settings
      3. Restarting VTrak
      4. Choosing a LUN Configuration Script
      5. Preparing a Configuration Script
      6. Importing a LUN Configuration Script
    9. Tuning VTrak Performance
      1. Configuring VTrak Controllers
      2. Configuring VTrak LUNs
      3. Configuring Spare Drives
    10. Configuring Clients
      1. Configuring a Client Computer
      2. Configuring a Server as a Client
    11. Configuring Metadata Controllers
      1. Configuring the Secondary Metadata Controller
      2. Configuring the Primary Metadata Controller
    12. Creating the SAN and SAN Volume
      1. Configuring the SAN
      2. Configuring the SAN Volume
    13. What You’ve Learned
    14. References
      1. Administration Guides
      2. Apple Knowledge Base Documents
      3. Additional Information
    15. Review Questions
      1. Answers
  7. 4. Client Management
    1. Controlling Client Access
      1. Adding an Xsan Client
      2. Adding an Xsan Serial Number
      3. Removing an Xsan Client
    2. Mounting and Unmounting an Xsan Volume
      1. Mounting an Xsan Volume with Xsan Admin
      2. Unmounting an Xsan Volume with Xsan Admin
      3. Mounting an Xsan Volume Using the Command Line
      4. Unmounting an Xsan Volume Using the Command Line
    3. Moving a Client to a Different SAN
    4. Controlling User Access
      1. Managing Local Users
      2. Understanding umask
      3. Managing Network Users
      4. Mapping Windows User and Group IDs
    5. Using POSIX and ACLs
      1. Understanding the ACL Use Model
      2. Implementing ACLs
      3. Xsan 2 Compatibility
      4. Using POSIX and ACL Best Practices
      5. Implementing ACLs with Affinities
    6. Managing Home Folders
      1. Choosing Home Folder Locations
      2. Locating Local Accounts
      3. Storing Network Accounts
      4. Managing Mobile Accounts
    7. Setting SAN User and Group Quotas
    8. Understanding Xsan Quotas
      1. Checking User Quota Status
    9. Combining Xsan Controllers and StorNext Clients
      1. Acquiring a StorNext License
      2. Using Xsan Controllers with StorNext Clients
    10. What You’ve Learned
    11. References
      1. Administration Guides
      2. Apple Knowledge Base Documents
    12. Review Questions
      1. Answers
  8. 5. Volume Management
    1. Understanding Xsan Volume Limitations
      1. Volume Limitations
    2. Using the /config Directory
      1. Xsan 2 Configuration Files
    3. File System Processes
    4. Managing Folder Affinities
      1. Understanding Affinities and Performance
      2. Using Affinities and Data Management
      3. Setting Up a Folder Affinity
      4. Removing an Affinity
      5. Changing a Folder’s Storage Pool Affinity
    5. Increasing SAN Storage
      1. Preparing LUNs
      2. Finding a LUN’s Drive Modules
      3. Adding LUNs to a Storage Pool
      4. Choosing Compatible LUNs
      5. Adding a Storage Pool to a Volume
      6. Adding a Volume to a SAN
    6. Changing Advanced Volume Settings
      1. Setting the Block Allocation Size
      2. Understanding Volume Allocation Strategy
      3. Enabling or Disabling Spotlight on a Volume
      4. Enabling and Disabling Access Control Lists
      5. Changing Windows ID Mapping
      6. Changing Advanced Allocation and Cache Settings
    7. Understanding Potential Data Loss
      1. Changes to the SAN
    8. Using Safe Shutdown and Startup
    9. Destroying a SAN Volume
    10. Choosing Backup Solutions
      1. Information Lifecycle Management
      2. Using Tape Virtualization
      3. Applying Traditional Backup
      4. Employing Disk-to-Disk Backup
      5. Using LAN-Free Backup
    11. What You’ve Learned
    12. References
      1. Administration Guides
      2. URLs
    13. Review Questions
      1. Answers
  9. 6. Maintenance and Troubleshooting
    1. Managing Metadata Controllers
      1. Adding a Metadata Controller
      2. Setting Controller Failover Priority
      3. Understanding Metadata Failover Communication
      4. Switching to a Standby Controller
      5. Identify the Controller Hosting a Volume
      6. Changing a Controller’s IP Address
    2. Monitoring SAN Status
    3. Using Xsan Admin
      1. Checking SAN Status
      2. Checking Volume Status
      3. Checking Free Space on a Volume
      4. Checking Free Space on a Storage Pool
      5. Graphing SAN Resource Usage
      6. Setting Up Status Notifications
      7. Viewing Xsan Logs
      8. Checking Volume Clients
    4. Using Xserve Monitoring Tools
      1. Using Server Monitor
      2. Using Server Admin
      3. Setting Up Notification in Server Admin
      4. Using the Server Status Widget
      5. Using Xserve RAID Monitoring Tools
    5. Using Promise RAID Monitoring Tools
      1. Configure Monitoring on Promise RAID
    6. Using Popular Command Line Tools
      1. Viewing the man Pages
    7. Using Xsan Commands
      1. Xsan Command Tools
      2. cvadmin
      3. cvadmin Parameters
      4. cvadmin Commands
      5. cvaffinity
      6. cvaffinity Parameters
      7. cvcp
      8. cvcp Parameters
      9. cvcp Commands
      10. cvfsck
      11. cvfsck Parameters
      12. cvfsck Commands
      13. cvlabel
      14. cvlabel Parameters
      15. cvmkdir
      16. cvmkdir Parameters
      17. cvmkfile
      18. cvmkfile Parameters
      19. cvmkfs
      20. cvmkfs Parameters
      21. cvupdatefs
      22. cvupdatefs Parameters
      23. snfsdefrag
      24. snfsdefrag Parameters
      25. xsanctl
      26. xsanctl Commands
    8. Applying Common SAN Troubleshooting Techniques
      1. You’re Unable to Connect to a Computer Using Xsan Admin
      2. You’re Unable to Install the Xsan Software
      3. Some Computers Aren’t Listed in Xsan Admin
      4. You’re Unable to Mount a Volume on a Client
      5. RAID LUNs Aren’t Accessible over Fibre Channel
      6. Files and Folders Created by Mac OS 9 Computers Show the Wrong Creation Date
      7. You Have Problems Using Command Line Tools
      8. A LUN Doesn’t Have as Much Space as Expected
      9. You’re Unable to Rename an Xsan Volume in the Finder
      10. You’re Unable to Add a Storage Pool
      11. Reserved Storage Pool Names
      12. Fibre Channel Performance Is Poorer Than Expected
      13. A Client Is Unable to Use a Volume After a Fibre Channel Interruption
        1. Check Whether a Computer Is Seeing Xsan Volume LUNs
      14. You’re Unable to Add LUNs to a Storage Pool
        1. Check the Common LUN Size for a Storage Pool
        2. Check the Size of the LUN You Want to Add
        3. Check the Data Types on a Storage Pool
        4. The Capacity of a Larger LUN Is Listed as 2 Terabytes
      15. File Copying Doesn’t Finish
    9. What You’ve Learned
    10. References
      1. Administration Guides
      2. Apple Knowledge Base Documents
    11. Review Questions
      1. Answers
  10. The Apple Pro Training Series
    1. The Apple Training Series