Representative examples of the evolving interrelationships of optics, nanotechnology, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), micro-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS), and biotechnology include
Digital image processing of optical imagery from high-speed cameras and x-ray illumination for real-time x-ray cineradiography
Optical signal processing for super high-speed computing
Physiology of the cell molecule mitochondria where messenger RNA generate proteins and signaling system pathways in response to impulse functions characterized with optical fiber sensor instrumentation
Laser illumination with spatiotemporal filtering to see through fireballs ...