Chapter 8

Causation

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Reprinted with permission: xkcd.com

“Perhaps no single concept is more pervasive and important in marketing than the notion of cause and effect. Marketing practitioners depend on it in the planning and implementation of programs designed to obtain responses from consumers. Ideas of advertising affecting sales, opinion leaders influencing the adoption of new products, or promotion activities producing interest and preferences for one’s wares all rely implicitly on mechanisms of cause and effect.”

—Richard P. Bagozzi1

Causation is perhaps one of the most esoteric and complicated concepts you will come across in the philosophy ...

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