Human vision evolved in daylight before civilization, creating the need for artificial lighting to see at night and illuminate enclosed protective dwellings. Artificial lighting, first based upon the incomplete combustion of carbon, created a red-yellow lighting characteristic of wood-fueled cooking fires, fat oils, and candles. Premixed oxygen fuel gas flames that could be adjusted to make brighter, cleaner lights were later developed. Eventually, electrical energy produced white light ...
4. Light, Optics, and Photoelectric Effects
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