© Norman Dunbar 2020
N. DunbarArduino Software Internalshttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-5790-6_1

1. Introduction

Norman Dunbar1 
Rawdon, West Yorkshire, UK

The Arduino is a great system for getting people into making with electronics and microcontrollers. I was reintroduced to a long-lost hobby when I was gifted an Arduino Duemilanove (aka 2009) by my wife’s late grandmother, and since then, I’ve had lots of fun learning and attempting to build things. I’ve even built a number of Arduino clones based on just the AVR microcontroller and a few passive components – it’s cheaper than fitting a new Arduino into a project!

Much has changed over the intervening years. LEDs used to cost about £10 each and came in one color, red. These days I can get ...

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