A chapter will be devoted to how conventional risk assessment can be carried out for a candidate nanoparticle (e.g., carbon nanotubes), and the limitations that arise from this approach. We will propose several alternate methods in another chapter including screening assessments and adapting the rich methodological literature on the use of experts for risk assessment. Another chapter will deal with non-occupational populations, their susceptibilities, and life-cycle risk assessments. There will be a chapter on current risk management and regulatory oversight frameworks and their adequacy. This chapter will also include a discussion of U.S. and E.U. approaches to risk assessment, as well as corporate approaches.