Logical Information Technology Security
IN THIS CHAPTER, logical access control issues and exposures are explored together with access-control software. The auditing of logical access to ensure the adequate control of logical security risks using the appropriate logical security features, tools, and procedures are also detailed.
COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS
In the early days of computers, a single group of individuals designed, manufactured, programmed, and operated unique machines. Programming was commonly executed by using plugboards where wires were connected to control the basic functions of the computer. Each individual plugboard was a single program that operated on its own to carry out numerical calculations. By the early 1960s, computers were being manufactured as standard machines to be operated in a standard manner and individual job roles became apparent for operators, systems designers, and programmers. It now became a requirement that computers operate, on an ongoing basis, from application program to application program with minimal operator intervention. Computers were becoming more complex with capabilities such as multiprogramming, time-sharing, virtual memory, and spooling, all of which caused complexities in the normal operations of mainframe computers. To simplify the process, software was written to manage the basic functionality of the computer in a standard format and provide an easier interface to the user-written application systems. ...