By asking some key questions derived from the model we can reveal the essential
What do we have to do? … A statement of requirements, objectives and success
How will we make it happen? … A plan of action or work to be undertaken and
preparation to be made.
What provisions have we made to avoid failure? … We have a risk assessment
report showing the actions taken.
What did we do? … A record of the work carried out.
How will we know it’s right? … A definition of the measurements that are to be
How can we prove its right? … A record of the results of measurement.
What gives us confidence in the result? … The fact that we used a soundly based
measurement technique or a calibrated device.
What did we decide to do with the rejects? … A plan of the remedial action to be
How do we know the reject was fixed? … A record of the remedial action taken.
How will we stop it happening again? … A plan of the corrective action to be taken.
How do we know it won’t happen again? … A record testifying to the effectiveness
of the corrective action taken.
There are many subsidiary questions, each exploring the process in more detail. In the
poem “The Elephant Child”, the English writer Rudyard Kipling wrote “I had six hon-
est serving friends, they taught me all I knew, they are what, where, why, when, how
and who.” This I have called Kipling’s Law because it is not just the words but also what
can be obtained by using them. However, the six friends also need a trigger in order to
focus on an object and this is where the process model in Figure 2.13 is useful. For
each entry and exit apply Kipling’s Law and establish Who does What, When, Where,
Why and How such that you answer the questions in Table 4.1. The answers may not
necessarily refer to whole documents. For example, in response to the question “where
do the resources come from?” the answer might be found on a flow diagram in the
form of an arrow linking two boxes.
The generic control model could be applied at four levels:
1 At the system level: so as to reveal the system requirements, system measure-
ments and system changes and thus identify business requirements, business plans,
business performance reviews and changes in the business strategy and structure.
The system level is at the level of the whole organization.
2 At the business process level: so as to reveal the process requirements, process
measurements and process changes and thus identify customer requirements,
quality plans, compliance checks and customer feedback. The process level is at
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