Book description
A Practical Guide to Physical and Chemical Principles and Calculations for Today’s Process Control Operators
In Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology, author T. David Griffith walks process technologists through the basic principles that govern their operations, helping them collaborate with chemical engineers to improve both safety and productivity. He shows process operators how to go beyond memorizing rules and formulas to understand the underlying science and physical laws, so they can accurately interpret anomalies and respond appropriately when exact rules or calculation methods don’t exist.
Using simple algebra and nontechnical analogies, Griffith explains each idea and technique without calculus. He introduces each topic by explaining why it matters to process technologists and offers numerous examples that show how key principles are applied and calculations are performed. For endofchapter problems, he provides the solutions in plainEnglish discussions of how and why they work. Chapter appendixes provide more advanced information for further exploration.
Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology is an indispensable, practical resource for every process technologist who wants to know “what the numbers mean” so they can control their systems and processes more efficiently, safely, and reliably.
T. David Griffith received his B.S. in chemical engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. from the University of WisconsinMadison, then topranked in the discipline. After working in research on enhanced oil recovery (EOR), he cofounded a small chemical company, and later in his career he developed a recordsetting Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) software package. He currently instructs in the hydrocarbon processing industry.
Coverage includes
• Preparing to solve problems by carefully organizing them and establishing consistent sets of measures
• Calculating areas and volumes, including complex objects and interpolation
• Understanding Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, and the Ideal Gas Law
• Predicting the behavior of gases under extreme conditions
• Applying thermodynamic laws to calculate work and changes in gas enthalpy, and to recognize operational problems
• Explaining phase equilibria for distillation and fractionalization
• Estimating chemical reaction speed to optimize control
• Balancing material or energy as they cross system boundaries
• Using material balance calculations to confirm quality control and prevent major problems
• Calculating energy balances and using them to troubleshoot poor throughput
• Understanding fluid flow, including shear, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flows, vectors, and tensors
• Characterizing the operation of devices that transport heat energy for heating or cooling
• Analyzing mass transfer in separation processes for materials purification
Table of contents
 Cover Page
 About This eBook
 Title Page
 Copyright Page
 Dedication Page
 Contents
 Foreword
 Preface
 Acknowledgments
 About the Author

Part I: Basic Principles

Chapter 1. Introductory Concepts
 1.1 Using This Book

1.2 Steps for Solving a Problem
 1. Read and Understand the Problem
 2. Define the Question
 3. Determine a Basis
 4. Determine Available Data
 5. Determine Data Conflicts
 6. Organize Equations
 7. Count the Number of Variables
 8. Divide and Conquer
 9. Input Data with Units
 10. Add Appropriate Conversion Factors
 11. Check Dimensional Consistency
 12. Turn the Crank
 13. Judge the Results
 1.3 Degrees of Freedom
 1.4 Dimensional Consistency and the Dimensional Equation
 1.5 The Big Four: Unit Operations of Process Technology
 1.6 Concluding Comments
 Problems
 Chapter 2. Areas, Volumes, Complex Objects, and Interpolation

Chapter 3. Units of Measure
 3.1 Time
 3.2 Length
 3.3 Volume
 3.4 Temperature
 3.5 Mass, Weight, and Force
 3.6 Vectors
 3.7 Torque, Moments, and Couples
 3.8 Density and Specific Gravity
 3.9 The Mole Unit
 3.10 Concentrations
 3.11 Pressure
 3.12 Work and Power
 3.13 Accuracy, Precision, and Variance
 3.14 Engineering Accuracy and Significant Figures
 3.15 Scientific Notation
 3.16 The Vernier Scale
 3.17 Prefixes: M versus m
 3.18 Concluding Comments
 References
 Problems
 Chapter 4. Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature

Chapter 5. Thermodynamics: Energy, Heat, and Work
 5.1 Heat and Its Equivalence
 5.2 The Conservation of Energy and Matter
 5.3 Work
 5.4 Heat Capacity
 5.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy
 5.6 Power
 5.7 Entropy
 5.8 Reversible versus Irreversible Systems
 5.9 Functions of State
 5.10 The Mollier Diagram
 5.11 Steam Tables
 5.12 The Entropy of Mixtures
 5.13 Latent Heat versus Sensible Heat
 5.14 Free Energy, Chemical Potential, and Entropy
 5.15 Laws of Thermodynamics
 5.16 Adiabatic Processes: Compression and Expansion
 5.17 The Carnot Cycle and Thermodynamic Efficiency
 5.18 Refrigeration and Heat Pumps
 5.19 JouleThomson Expansion
 5.20 TurboExpanders
 5.21 Systems
 5.22 Concluding Comments
 Appendix 5A: Concepts of Activity and Fugacity
 Problems

Chapter 6. Phase Equilibria
 6.1 The Units of Equilibrium: Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction
 6.2 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure
 6.3 Chemical Potential
 6.4 Boiling
 6.5 Azeotropes
 6.6 Degrees of Freedom and the Gibbs’ Phase Rule
 6.7 Phase Transitions
 6.8 Effects of Impurities
 6.9 Quality, Bubble Point, and Dew Point
 6.10 Equilibrium Equations
 6.11 Effects of Mass and Volume
 6.12 Osmotic Pressure
 6.13 Ion Exchange
 6.14 Supercritical Fluids
 6.15 Concluding Comments
 Problems
 Chapter 7. Chemical Reaction Kinetics

Chapter 1. Introductory Concepts

Part II: Calculations: Material and Energy Balances

Chapter 8. Material Balances

8.1 Methodology
 1. Understand the Problem
 2. Define the Question
 3. Sketch a Representation
 4. Draw the Envelope(s)
 5. Identify and Label Streams
 6. Determine What Is Known and Not Known for Each Stream
 7. Write Equations, Equalities, Correlations, and Restrictions
 8. Classify Independent and Dependent Variables
 9. Specify a Basis
 10. Determine Degrees of Freedom
 11. Calculate
 12. Judge the Result
 Writing Equations, Equalities, Correlations, and Restrictions
 Subscript Conventions
 When Things Don’t Add Up
 8.2 The Assumption of SteadyState
 8.3 SinglePhase Material Balances for Separation Processes
 8.4 SinglePhase Material Balances for Blending Processes
 8.5 MultiplePhase Material Balances
 8.6 Material Balances with Chemical Reactions
 8.7 Material Balances in the Real World
 8.8 Concluding Comments
 Appendix 8A: Business Economics
 Problems

8.1 Methodology
 Chapter 9. Energy Balances

Chapter 8. Material Balances

Part III: Application of Basic Principles and Calculations to Transport Phenomena

Chapter 10. Transport Phenomena: Fluid Flow
 10.1 Shear Rate and Viscosity
 10.2 Laminar versus Turbulent Flow
 10.3 Vectors and Tensors
 10.4 Shell Balances
 10.5 The Equations of Motion
 10.6 Dimensional Analysis
 10.7 The Reynolds Number and the Fanning Friction Factor
 10.8 The Bernoulli Equation
 10.9 NonNewtonian Fluid Flow
 10.10 Centrifugal Pumps and Feet of Head
 10.11 Concluding Comments
 References
 Problems
 Chapter 11. Transport Phenomena: Heat Transfer

Chapter 12. Transport Phenomena: Mass Transfer
 12.1 Diffusion
 12.2 The Entropy of Mass Transport
 12.3 Shell Balances
 12.4 Dispersion
 12.5 Mass Transport in the Real World
 12.6 MassTransfer Processes: Unit Operations
 12.7 Material and Energy Balances
 12.8 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Flow
 12.9 Dimensional Analysis, the HETP, and Efficiency
 12.10 Concluding Comments
 References
 Problems

Chapter 10. Transport Phenomena: Fluid Flow
 Postface
 Appendix A. Answers to Selected Problems
 Appendix B. Conversion Factors
 Appendix C. Gas Constants
 Appendix D. Steam Tables
 Index
Product information
 Title: Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology
 Author(s):
 Release date: September 2015
 Publisher(s): Pearson
 ISBN: 9780133388343
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