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Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology

Book Description

A Practical Guide to Physical and Chemical Principles and Calculations for Today’s Process Control Operators

 

In Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology, author T. David Griffith walks process technologists through the basic principles that govern their operations, helping them collaborate with chemical engineers to improve both safety and productivity. He shows process operators how to go beyond memorizing rules and formulas to understand the underlying science and physical laws, so they can accurately interpret anomalies and respond appropriately when exact rules or calculation methods don’t exist.

 

Using simple algebra and non-technical analogies, Griffith explains each idea and technique without calculus. He introduces each topic by explaining why it matters to process technologists and offers numerous examples that show how key principles are applied and calculations are performed. For end-of-chapter problems, he provides the solutions in plain-English discussions of how and why they work. Chapter appendixes provide more advanced information for further exploration.

 

Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology is an indispensable, practical resource for every process technologist who wants to know “what the numbers mean” so they can control their systems and processes more efficiently, safely, and reliably.

 

T. David Griffith received his B.S. in chemical engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, then top-ranked in the discipline. After working in research on enhanced oil recovery (EOR), he cofounded a small chemical company, and later in his career he developed a record-setting Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) software package. He currently instructs in the hydrocarbon processing industry.

 

Coverage includes

• Preparing to solve problems by carefully organizing them and establishing consistent sets of measures

• Calculating areas and volumes, including complex objects and interpolation

• Understanding Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, and the Ideal Gas Law

• Predicting the behavior of gases under extreme conditions

• Applying thermodynamic laws to calculate work and changes in gas enthalpy, and to recognize operational problems

• Explaining phase equilibria for distillation and fractionalization

• Estimating chemical reaction speed to optimize control

• Balancing material or energy as they cross system boundaries

• Using material balance calculations to confirm quality control and prevent major problems

• Calculating energy balances and using them to troubleshoot poor throughput

• Understanding fluid flow, including shear, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flows, vectors, and tensors

• Characterizing the operation of devices that transport heat energy for heating or cooling

• Analyzing mass transfer in separation processes for materials purification

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. About This E-Book
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. About The Author
  9. Part I Basic Principles
    1. Chapter 1 Introductory Concepts
      1. 1.1 Using This Book
      2. 1.2 Steps for Solving a Problem
      3. 1.3 Degrees of Freedom
      4. 1.4 Dimensional Consistency and the Dimensional Equation
      5. 1.5 The Big Four: Unit Operations of Process Technology
      6. 1.6 Concluding Comments
      7. Problems
    2. Chapter 2 Areas, Volumes, Complex Objects, and Interpolation
      1. 2.1 Calculating Areas
      2. 2.2 Calculating Volumes
      3. 2.3 Complex Objects: Areas and Volumes
      4. 2.4 Interpolation and Extrapolation
      5. 2.5 Concluding Comments
      6. Problems
    3. Chapter 3 Units of Measure
      1. 3.1 Time
      2. 3.2 Length
      3. 3.3 Volume
      4. 3.4 Temperature
      5. 3.5 Mass, Weight, and Force
      6. 3.6 Vectors
      7. 3.7 Torque, Moments, and Couples
      8. 3.8 Density and Specific Gravity
      9. 3.9 The Mole Unit
      10. 3.10 Concentrations
      11. 3.11 Pressure
      12. 3.12 Work and Power
      13. 3.13 Accuracy, Precision, and Variance
      14. 3.14 Engineering Accuracy and Significant Figures
      15. 3.15 Scientific Notation
      16. 3.16 The Vernier Scale
      17. 3.17 Prefixes: M versus m
      18. 3.18 Concluding Comments
      19. References
      20. Problems
    4. Chapter 4 Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
      1. 4.1 Boyle’s Law
      2. 4.2 Charles’s Law
      3. 4.3 Absolute Temperature
      4. 4.4 The Ideal Gas Law
      5. 4.5 Real Gases
      6. 4.6 Volumetric Fractions and Mole Fractions
      7. 4.7 Standard Conditions
      8. 4.8 Concluding Comments
      9. Appendix 4A: Equations of State
      10. Problems
    5. Chapter 5 Thermodynamics: Energy, Heat, and Work
      1. 5.1 Heat and Its Equivalence
      2. 5.2 The Conservation of Energy and Matter
      3. 5.3 Work
      4. 5.4 Heat Capacity
      5. 5.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy
      6. 5.6 Power
      7. 5.7 Entropy
      8. 5.8 Reversible versus Irreversible Systems
      9. 5.9 Functions of State
      10. 5.10 The Mollier Diagram
      11. 5.11 Steam Tables
      12. 5.12 The Entropy of Mixtures
      13. 5.13 Latent Heat versus Sensible Heat
      14. 5.14 Free Energy, Chemical Potential, and Entropy
      15. 5.15 Laws of Thermodynamics
      16. 5.16 Adiabatic Processes: Compression and Expansion
      17. 5.17 The Carnot Cycle and Thermodynamic Efficiency
      18. 5.18 Refrigeration and Heat Pumps
      19. 5.19 Joule-Thomson Expansion
      20. 5.20 Turbo-Expanders
      21. 5.21 Systems
      22. 5.22 Concluding Comments
      23. Appendix 5A: Concepts of Activity and Fugacity
      24. Problems
    6. Chapter 6 Phase Equilibria
      1. 6.1 The Units of Equilibrium: Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction
      2. 6.2 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure
      3. 6.3 Chemical Potential
      4. 6.4 Boiling
      5. 6.5 Azeotropes
      6. 6.6 Degrees of Freedom and the Gibbs’ Phase Rule
      7. 6.7 Phase Transitions
      8. 6.8 Effects of Impurities
      9. 6.9 Quality, Bubble Point, and Dew Point
      10. 6.10 Equilibrium Equations
      11. 6.11 Effects of Mass and Volume
      12. 6.12 Osmotic Pressure
      13. 6.13 Ion Exchange
      14. 6.14 Supercritical Fluids
      15. 6.15 Concluding Comments
      16. Problems
    7. Chapter 7 Chemical Reaction Kinetics
      1. 7.1 Effect of Reactant Concentration
      2. 7.2 Complex Mechanisms with Intermediates
      3. 7.3 Effect of Temperature
      4. 7.4 Catalysts
      5. 7.5 Yield, Fractional Conversion, and Extent of Reaction
      6. 7.6 Equilibrium Reactions and the Law of Mass Action
      7. 7.7 Effect of Phase Behavior
      8. 7.8 Concluding Comments
      9. Problems
  10. Part II Calculations: Material and Energy Balances
    1. Chapter 8 Material Balances
      1. 8.1 Methodology
      2. 8.2 The Assumption of Steady-State
      3. 8.3 Single-Phase Material Balances for Separation Processes
      4. 8.4 Single-Phase Material Balances for Blending Processes
      5. 8.5 Multiple-Phase Material Balances
      6. 8.6 Material Balances with Chemical Reactions
      7. 8.7 Material Balances in the Real World
      8. 8.8 Concluding Comments
      9. Appendix 8A: Business Economics
      10. Problems
    2. Chapter 9 Energy Balances
      1. 9.1 Methodology
      2. 9.2 Simple Energy Balances
      3. 9.3 Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances
      4. 9.4 Simultaneous Balances with Chemical Reactions
      5. 9.5 Concluding Comments
      6. Appendix 9A: Heat of Mixing
      7. Problems
  11. Part III Application of Basic Principles and Calculations to Transport Phenomena
    1. Chapter 10 Transport Phenomena: Fluid Flow
      1. 10.1 Shear Rate and Viscosity
      2. 10.2 Laminar versus Turbulent Flow
      3. 10.3 Vectors and Tensors
      4. 10.4 Shell Balances
      5. 10.5 The Equations of Motion
      6. 10.6 Dimensional Analysis
      7. 10.7 The Reynolds Number and the Fanning Friction Factor
      8. 10.8 The Bernoulli Equation
      9. 10.9 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow
      10. 10.10 Centrifugal Pumps and Feet of Head
      11. 10.11 Concluding Comments
      12. References
      13. Problems
    2. Chapter 11 Transport Phenomena: Heat Transfer
      1. 11.1 Heat Conduction
      2. 11.2 Convection
      3. 11.3 Combined Conduction and Convection
      4. 11.4 Radiation
      5. 11.5 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 11.6 Shell Balances
      7. 11.7 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Heat Transfer
      8. 11.8 Concluding Comments
      9. References
      10. Problems
    3. Chapter 12 Transport Phenomena: Mass Transfer
      1. 12.1 Diffusion
      2. 12.2 The Entropy of Mass Transport
      3. 12.3 Shell Balances
      4. 12.4 Dispersion
      5. 12.5 Mass Transport in the Real World
      6. 12.6 Mass-Transfer Processes: Unit Operations
      7. 12.7 Material and Energy Balances
      8. 12.8 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Flow
      9. 12.9 Dimensional Analysis, the HETP, and Efficiency
      10. 12.10 Concluding Comments
      11. References
      12. Problems
  12. Postface
  13. Appendix A Answers to Selected Problems
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  14. Appendix B Conversion Factors
  15. Appendix C Gas Constants
  16. Appendix D Steam Tables
  17. Index