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Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology by T. David Griffith

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Chapter 6. Phase Equilibria

6.1 The Units of Equilibrium: Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction

6.2 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure

6.3 Chemical Potential

6.4 Boiling

6.5 Azeotropes

6.6 Degrees of Freedom and the Gibbs’ Phase Rule

6.7 Phase Transitions

6.8 Effects of Impurities

6.9 Quality, Bubble Point, and Dew Point

6.10 Equilibrium Equations

6.11 Effects of Mass and Volume

6.12 Osmotic Pressure

6.13 Ion Exchange

6.14 Supercritical Fluids

6.15 Concluding Comments

Problems

The most common “unit operation” in the hydrocarbon-processing industry is fractionation, or as it is also called, distillation. It is second only to the process of the use of fire in its age. Recently, it was discovered that over 10,000 years ago, even Neanderthals used distillation ...

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