This section is concerned with terms used in describing the transmission of data between computers within a network. Other related terms may be found in Section A12 Networking or Section D3 Communications technology.

Communications and control require that data is passed rapidly and accurately between parts of a system. The origins of present-day communication systems are the electric telegraph in which signals were sent as electric pulses, the telephone in which sound is passed as a varying electric current, and radio in which the signals are sent as electromagnetic radiation.

Modern communications systems are highly reliable, accurate and affordable. From the earliest days of computers until the late 1980s it was ...

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