This section is concerned with the principles involved in achieving communication between computer systems, and the conventions that determine how such systems communicate with each other. Related terms can be found in Section A12 Networking and Section B5 Communications components.

Ways of communicating data between distant places using electrical energy have been in use for over 100 years. The telegraph was the first. Very quickly, machines replaced people and automatic communications became typical. Telephones, teleprinters, radio and television were all well developed before computers were combined with them to produce the range of global communications that is now available.

Global communications require that ...

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