For this task, you are going to hook up your HW so that you can record and play sound.
Reassemble your BeagleBone Black. Plug in the LAN cable. Connect the powered USB hub and plug in the microphone/speaker USB device. Also plug in your speakers and the microphone.
Plug in the power. You can execute all of the following instructions in one of the several ways.
If you are still connected to the display, keyboard, and mouse, log in to the board, use
startx to start Xfce (your windowing system), and then open a terminal window.
If you are only connected via LAN, you can do all of this using an SSH terminal window, so as soon as your board flashes that it has power (look for the heartbeat LED), ...