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# Counting the 1-Bits in an Array

The simplest way to count the number of 1-bits in an array (vector) of fullwords, in the absence of the population count instruction, is to use a procedure such as that of Example 10-1 on each word of the array, and simply add the results. We call this the naïve method. Ignoring loop control, the generation of constants, and loads from the array, it takes 16 instructions per word: 15 for the code of Example 10-1, plus 1 for the addition. We assume the procedure is expanded inline, the masks are loaded outside of the loop, and the machine has a sufficient number of registers to hold all the quantities used in the calculation.

Another way is to use the first two executable lines of Example 10-1 on groups of three words in the array, adding the three partial results. Because each partial result has a maximum value of 4 in each 4-bit field, the sum of the three has a maximum value of 12 in each 4-bit field, so no overflow occurs. This idea can be applied to the 8-and 16-bit fields. Coding and compiling this method indicates that it gives about a 20 percent reduction over the naíve method in total number of instructions executed on a basic RISC. Much of the savings is canceled by the additional housekeeping instructions required. We will not dwell on this method because there is a much better way to do it.

The better way seems to have been invented by Robert Harley and David Seal in about 1996.[23]It is based on a circuit called a carry-save adder (CSA) ...

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