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Biomass and Biofuels

Book Description

The long-held tenets of the energy sector are being rewritten in the twenty-first century. The rise of unconventional oil and gas and of renewables is transforming our economies and improving our understanding of the distribution of the world's energy resources and their impacts. A complete knowledge of the dynamics underpinning energy markets is n

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. Editors
  3. Contributors
  4. Part I - Biomass Feedstock and Logistics
    1. Chapter 1 - Biomass Feedstocks: Types, Sources, Availability, Production, and Sustainability
      1. 1.1 Purpose
      2. 1.2 Introduction
      3. 1.3 Forms of Bioenergy
      4. 1.4 Feedstock Materials
      5. 1.5 Biomass Sources and Types
        1. 1.5.1 Forest-Based Feedstocks
        2. 1.5.2 Agriculture-Based Feedstocks
        3. 1.5.3 Waste-Based Feedstocks
        4. 1.5.4 Agroforestry Feedstocks
        5. 1.5.5 Biomass from Conservation Lands
        6. 1.5.6 Algae
      6. 1.6 Biomass Supply and Availability
      7. 1.7 Agricultural Cellulosic Biomass Production
        1. 1.7.1 Perennial Grass Crops
        2. 1.7.2 Short-Rotation Woody Crops and Agroforestry
        3. 1.7.3 Annual Row Crop Residues
      8. 1.8 Sustainability Issues
        1. 1.8.1 Sustainability Defined
        2. 1.8.2 Food Insecurity
        3. 1.8.3 Climate Change
        4. 1.8.4 Invasive and Transgenic Plants
        5. 1.8.5 Marginal Lands
        6. 1.8.6 Water Supply and Quality
        7. 1.8.7 Rural Development and Social Justice
      9. 1.9 Summary
      10. Acknowledgments
      11. References
    2. Chapter 2 - Sorghum as a Sustainable Feedstock for Biofuels
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Types of Sorghum
        1. 2.2.1 Grain Sorghum
        2. 2.2.2 Sweet Sorghum
        3. 2.2.3 Forage Sorghum
        4. 2.2.4 Brown Midrib Sorghum
        5. 2.2.5 Energy Sorghum
      3. 2.3 Potential Uses of Sorghum
        1. 2.3.1 Resilient Dryland Crop
        2. 2.3.2 Food/Feed/Fodder Crop
        3. 2.3.3 Biofuel Feedstock
        4. 2.3.4 Other Industrial Uses
      4. 2.4 Bioethanol from Sorghum: Status
      5. 2.5 Biofuel Production Models
        1. 2.5.1 CU Model
        2. 2.5.2 DCU Model
      6. 2.6 Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Value Chain: SWOT Analysis
        1. 2.6.1 SWOT Analysis of the CU
          1. 2.6.1.1 Strengths of the CU for Ethanol Production
          2. 2.6.1.2 Weaknesses of the CU for Ethanol Production
          3. 2.6.1.3 Opportunities of the CU for Ethanol Production
          4. 2.6.1.4 Disadvantages of the CU for Ethanol Production
        2. 2.6.2 SWOT Analysis of DCU Model
          1. 2.6.2.1 Strengths of the DCU for Syrup-Ethanol Production
          2. 2.6.2.2 Weaknesses of the DCU for Ethanol Production
          3. 2.6.2.3 Opportunities for the DCU
          4. 2.6.2.4 Threats for the DCU
      7. 2.7 Environmental and Economic Sustainability
        1. 2.7.1 Environmental Sustainability
        2. 2.7.2 Economic Sustainability
          1. 2.7.2.1 Trade and Policies
          2. 2.7.2.2 Economic Analysis of the Sweet Sorghum Value Chain
          3. 2.7.2.3 Farmers’ Insight into Sweet Sorghum Cultivation
        3. 2.7.3 Biorefinery Concept in Sorghum
      8. 2.8 Proposed Model for Enhanced Sustainability
      9. 2.9 Conclusions
      10. Acknowledgment
      11. References
    3. Chapter 3 - Short Rotation Woody Crops Biomass Production
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Brief History and Background of SRWCs Program
      3. 3.3 Short Rotation Woody Crops
        1. 3.3.1 Hybrid Poplar
          1. 3.3.1.1 Introduction
          2. 3.3.1.2 Biology and Production System
          3. 3.3.1.3 Breeding/Genetic Improvements
          4. 3.3.1.4 Biomass Production
        2. 3.3.2 Shrub Willow (Salix spp.)
          1. 3.3.2.1 Introduction
          2. 3.3.2.2 Biology and Production Systems
          3. 3.3.2.3 Breeding and Genetic Improvements
          4. 3.3.2.4 Biomass Production
        3. 3.3.3 Eucalyptus
          1. 3.3.3.1 Introduction
          2. 3.3.3.2 Biology and Production System
          3. 3.3.3.3 Breeding and Genetic Improvements
          4. 3.3.3.4 Biomass Production
      4. 3.4 Challenges and Limitations of Using SRWC for Energy
        1. 3.4.1 Inadequate Productivity and Risk of Pests and Diseases
        2. 3.4.2 Technological Compatibility
        3. 3.4.3 Conversion Efficiency
        4. 3.4.4 Cost of Production
      5. 3.5 Sustainability of SRWC for Energy
      6. 3.6 Planting Willows Using Traditional Farming Methods—A Case Study
      7. 3.7 Future Prospects and Conclusions
      8. References
  5. Chapter 4 - Supply Chain Management of Biomass Feedstock
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Classification of the Literature Based on the Scope of Decisions in the Supply Chain
      1. 4.2.1 Strategic Decisions
      2. 4.2.2 Tactical Decisions
      3. 4.2.3 Operational Decisions
    3. 4.3 Classification of the Literature Based on the Optimization Models Used
      1. 4.3.1 Deterministic Optimization Models
        1. 4.3.1.1 Problem Parameters
        2. 4.3.1.2 Decision Variables
      2. 4.3.2 Stochastic Optimization Models
        1. 4.3.2.1 A Two-Stage Stochastic Programing Model
      3. 4.3.3 Multiobjective Optimization Models
        1. 4.3.3.1 Cost Objective
        2. 4.3.3.2 Environmental Objective
        3. 4.3.3.3 Social Objective
        4. 4.3.3.4 The MILP Model
      4. 4.3.4 Simulation and Simulation/Optimization Models
    4. 4.4 Classification of the Literature Based on Raw Material Used
    5. 4.5 Classification of the Literature Based on Products Produced
    6. 4.6 Classification of the Literature Based on the Scope of the Study
    7. 4.7 Other Related Literature
    8. 4.8 Conclusions
    9. Acknowledgment
    10. References
  6. Part II - Conversion Processes
    1. Chapter 5 - Thermochemical Biomass Conversion for Rural Biorefinery
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Feedstocks for Biorefinery
      3. 5.3 What Is a Biorefinery?
      4. 5.4 Types of Biorefineries
      5. 5.5 Various Methods of Conversion
      6. 5.6 Thermochemical Processes
      7. 5.7 Products from Biorefineries
      8. 5.8 Use of Green Chemistry in Biorefineries
      9. 5.9 Rural Biorefineries
      10. 5.10 Challenges and Opportunities
      11. Acknowledgments
      12. References
    2. Chapter 6 - Conversion of Holocellulose-Derived Polyols to Valuable Chemicals Using High-Temperature Liquid Water and High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide
      1. 6.1 Introduction
        1. 6.1.1 Dehydration of Polyalcohol in High-Temperature Liquid Water and in High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide
      2. 6.2 Conclusion
      3. References
    3. Chapter 7 - Utilization of Ionic Liquids for the Processing of Biopolymers
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Biopolymer Processing Using ILs—A Brief Literature Review
        1. 7.2.1 Dissolution Studies
        2. 7.2.2 Ionogels
        3. 7.2.3 Functionalization
        4. 7.2.4 Extraction
        5. 7.2.5 Composite/Nanocomposite Materials and Their Ionogels
      3. 7.3 Agarose Processing in ILs
        1. 7.3.1 Extraction from Algae
        2. 7.3.2 Dissolution and Regeneration
        3. 7.3.3 Ionogels in ILs/Mixed ILs
        4. 7.3.4 In Situ Functionalization and Ionogels of Modified Materials
        5. 7.3.5 Agarose–Chitosan Composite Materials/Ionogels
        6. 7.3.6 Nanocomposite Materials/Ionogels in ILs
      4. 7.4 Conclusion
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
    4. Chapter 8 - Economically Viable Biochemical Processes for Advanced Rural Biorefinery and Downstream Recovery Operations
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Feedstocks
      3. 8.3 Ethanol
        1. 8.3.1 Economics
        2. 8.3.2 By-Products
        3. 8.3.3 Challenges
      4. 8.4 Anaerobic Digestion
        1. 8.4.1 Biogas Cleanup
        2. 8.4.2 Challenges
      5. 8.5 Integrating Anaerobic Digestion of Wastes into a Biochemical Rural Biorefinery
      6. 8.6 Conclusion
      7. References
    5. Chapter 9 - Effect of Cometals in Copper Catalysts for Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Experimental
      3. 9.3 Results and Discussion
      4. 9.4 Conclusions
      5. References
    6. Chapter 10 - Energy Harvest: A Possible Solution to the Open Field Stubble Burning in Punjab, India
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Residues as a Feedstock for Energy Generation
      3. 10.3 Combustion
      4. 10.4 Gasification
      5. 10.5 Pyrolysis
      6. 10.6 Slow Pyrolysis
      7. 10.7 Fast Pyrolysis
      8. 10.8 Intermediate Pyrolysis
      9. 10.9 Project Energy Harvest
      10. 10.10 Phase 1 Lab Scale Testing
      11. 10.11 Pyrolysis Process
      12. 10.12 Biochar Trials
      13. 10.13 Field Preparation
      14. 10.14 Phase 2 of the Project
      15. 10.15 Mobile Unit Demonstration
      16. 10.16 Feedback from the Villagers
      17. 10.17 Key Milestones
      18. Acknowledgments
      19. References
    7. Chapter 11 - Algal Biorefinery
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Mode of Nutrition in Microalgae
        1. 11.2.1 Autotrophic
        2. 11.2.2 Heterotrophic
        3. 11.2.3 Mixotrophic
      3. 11.3 Biofuels from Microalgae
        1. 11.3.1 Biodiesel
        2. 11.3.2 Biohydrogen
        3. 11.3.3 Bioelectricity
      4. 11.4 Value Addition
        1. 11.4.1 Polysaccharides
        2. 11.4.2 Protein Compounds
        3. 11.4.3 Chlorophylls
        4. 11.4.4 Carotenoids
        5. 11.4.5 Phycobiliproteins
      5. 11.5 Metabolic Engineering
      6. 11.6 Microalgae-Based Wastewater Treatment
      7. 11.7 Algal Biorefinery
      8. 11.8 Summary and Conclusions
      9. Acknowledgment
      10. References
  7. Part III - Ecological Economics and Policy
    1. Chapter 12 - Process Systems Engineering Approach to Biofuel Plant Design
      1. 12.1 Contribution of Biofuels to the Energy Market
        1. 12.1.1 Energy Demand and Emissions
        2. 12.1.2 Biofuels: Challenges and Advantages
          1. 12.1.2.1 Land Usage
          2. 12.1.2.2 Water Usage
          3. 12.1.2.3 Energy Balance
          4. 12.1.2.4 Emissions
        3. 12.1.3 Process Synthesis: Challenges in Biofuel Production Facilities
      2. 12.2 Mathematical Programing Techniques for Biofuel Production Processes
        1. 12.2.1 Superstructure Optimization
          1. 12.2.1.1 Modeling Approaches
          2. 12.2.1.2 Superstructure Generation
        2. 12.2.2 Energy and Water Integration
          1. 12.2.2.1 Heat Exchanger Networks
          2. 12.2.2.2 Heat Integrated Distillation Columns and Column Sequencing
          3. 12.2.2.3 Simultaneous Optimization and Heat Integration
          4. 12.2.2.4 Water Networks
        3. 12.2.3 Environmental Impact Metrics
      3. 12.3 Systematic Design of Biofuel Production Processes
        1. 12.3.1 Biochemical Processes
          1. 12.3.1.1 Particular Challenges
          2. 12.3.1.2 Cases of Study
        2. 12.3.2 Thermal Processes
          1. 12.3.2.1 Particular Challenges
          2. 12.3.2.2 Cases of Study
        3. 12.3.3 Summary of Plant Operation
      4. 12.4 Integration of Processes: The Biorefinery Complex
        1. 12.4.1 Integrating First- and Second-Generation Ethanol
        2. 12.4.2 Integrated Production of Ethanol and Biodiesel from Algae
        3. 12.4.3 Hybrid Fuels
        4. 12.4.4 By-Product Integration
      5. Acknowledgment
      6. References
    2. Chapter 13 - Impact of Allocation Procedures on the Greenhouse Gas Intensity of Wood-Based Cellulosic Ethanol
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Methods
      3. 13.3 Results
      4. 13.4 Discussion and Conclusion
      5. Appendix
      6. References
    3. Chapter 14 - Policy Mechanisms to Implement and Support Biomass and Biofuel Projects in the United States
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 Bioenergy Policies—Past, Present, and Future
        1. 14.2.1 Bioenergy Policies—The Last Decade
          1. 14.2.1.1 Production Targets
          2. 14.2.1.2 Assistance to Biomass Producers
          3. 14.2.1.3 Import Tariffs
          4. 14.2.1.4 Fiscal Incentives
          5. 14.2.1.5 Research and Development Support
      3. 14.3 Certification and BMPs
      4. 14.4 Case Studies
        1. 14.4.1 Case Study 1: Corn Ethanol and Biodiesel Production in Iowa
        2. 14.4.2 Case Study 2: Biomass Pellets in Georgia
        3. 14.4.3 Case Study 3: Cellulosic Ethanol Production in Florida
        4. 14.4.4 Case Study 4: Range Fuels Ethanol Facility in Georgia
      5. 14.5 Discussion and Conclusions
        1. 14.5.1 The Road Ahead
      6. Acknowledgment
      7. References
  8. Part IV - Case Studies
  9. Chapter 15
  10. Cellulosic Biofuel in the United States: Targets, Achievements, Bottlenecks, and a Case Study of Three Advanced Biofuel Facilities
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Goals, Achievements, and Bottlenecks
    3. 15.3 Case Study of Biorefineries
      1. 15.3.1 Abengoa
      2. 15.3.2 POET-DSM
      3. 15.3.3 ZeaChem
    4. 15.4 Potential for Biofuel Economy
    5. 15.5 ARBR Model—A Scale-Up Strategy
    6. 15.6 Conclusion
    7. Acknowledgment
    8. References
  11. Chapter 16 - Biorefineries for Sustainable Production and Distribution: A Case Study from India
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Energy Pattern in India
    3. 16.3 Necessity and Opportunity for Lignocellulosic Biomass
    4. 16.4 Biofuel Implementation Strategy
    5. 16.5 Biofuel Strategies of Other Nations
    6. 16.6 Indian Biomass Scenario
      1. 16.6.1 Agriculture Crop Residues
      2. 16.6.2 West Bengal
      3. 16.6.3 Haryana
    7. 16.7 Various Biomass Conversion Technologies
    8. 16.8 Conclusions
    9. Acknowledgments
    10. References
  12. Chapter 17 - Chapter Techno-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Options in Brazil
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Biofuel Production in Brazil
      1. 17.2.1 Ethanol from Sugarcane
      2. 17.2.2 Biodiesel
      3. 17.2.3 Second-Generation Ethanol
      4. 17.2.4 Future Production Targets and Research Directions in Brazil
        1. 17.2.4.1 Biodiesel Perspectives
        2. 17.2.4.2 Ethanol Perspectives
        3. 17.2.4.3 Alternatives for Harvesting Extension in Sugarcane Biorefineries: Sweet Sorghum and Forest Residues
    3. 17.3 Techno-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Options in Brazil
      1. 17.3.1 First-Generation Ethanol
      2. 17.3.2 Second-Generation Ethanol
      3. 17.3.3 Sweet Sorghum and Forest Residues for Harvesting Extension in the Sugarcane Biorefineries
      4. 17.3.4 Biodiesel
    4. 17.4 Final Remarks
    5. References
  13. Chapter 18 - Biomass and Biofuels: A Case Study from Nigeria
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Energy Scenario in Nigeria
    3. 18.3 Nigeria’s Energy Resources
    4. 18.4 Biomass and Biofuels
      1. 18.4.1 Biomass
      2. 18.4.2 Biofuels
    5. 18.5 Assessment of Biomass Resources in Nigeria
    6. 18.6 Energy Projection from the Biomass in Nigeria
    7. 18.7 Biomass Feedstocks
      1. 18.7.1 Dung for Fuel
      2. 18.7.2 Wood Fuel and Charcoal
      3. 18.7.3 Domestic and Industrial Waste
      4. 18.7.4 Biogas
      5. 18.7.5 Biodiesel
      6. 18.7.6 Bioethanol
    8. 18.8 Biomass Prospects
    9. 18.9 Opportunities
      1. 18.9.1 Energy Security
      2. 18.9.2 Economic Development
      3. 18.9.3 Environmental Benefit
    10. 18.10 Challenges Hampering Effective Application of Biofuels in Nigeria
      1. 18.10.1 Lack of Awareness of the Energy Potential and Efficiency of the Biomass
      2. 18.10.2 Research and Development Project Funding
      3. 18.10.3 Capacity and Lack of Standard Quality Control
      4. 18.10.4 Financial and Fiscal Incentives
      5. 18.10.5 Lack of Awareness of the Importance of Energy Efficiency and Conservation
    11. 18.11 Strategies for Increasing Biomass Penetration into Nigeria’s Energy Mix
    12. 18.12 Conclusions
    13. Acknowledgments
    14. References