Mariano Martín1 and Ignacio E. Grossmann2
1Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Mankind has been running on renewable sources of energy until very recently. From a recent energy outlook prepared by ExxonMobil (Figure 12.1), it is possible to see that in the 1800s, biomass supplied more than 90% of the energy and fuel needs. From the late 1800s to the early 1900s, fossil fuels became the preferred energy resource because of their easy availability and low cost. Since ...