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Biomedical Imaging by Sebastian Aeffner, Timo Aspelmeier, Tim Salditt

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3Essentials of medical x-ray physics

Historically, x-rays provided the first noninvasive probe of the interior body. Soon after their discovery in 1895 by W. C. Röntgen, x-ray imaging in form of radiography revolutionized medical diagnostics. Radiography is based on shadow imaging, or more precisely projection imaging. Image gray values result from the different attenuation of rays traversing tissues. In other words, in its conventional form, radiography is based on absorption contrast. This chapter presents fundamental properties of x-rays, addressing the generation of x-rays, the interaction processes of x-rays and matter, as well as the detection of x-rays. This provides a basis to understand more advanced techniques like tomography or phase ...

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