13 An Introduction to Infra‐red and Raman Spectroscopies for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Studies

Ka Lung Andrew Chan

School of Cancers and Pharmaceutical Science, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, SE1 9NH, UK

13.1 Significance and Short Background

Infra‐red and Raman spectroscopies are well‐established analytical methods in pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. Infra‐red and Raman spectra often contain many sharp bands that are specific to the chemicals present in the sample. The acquired spectra can be used to characterise chemical composition, polymorphism, functional groups and molecular interactions within samples. These techniques are non‐destructive and samples can be retrieved after measurement for further analysis. These analytical techniques are highly versatile; for example, they can be used for on‐line process monitoring or the study of living samples, such as cell cultures. Measurements are highly reproducible and they have been used as gold standard methods in the quality control of pharmaceutical products. As the technology advances, large focal plane array (FPA) detectors are becoming routinely used for imaging, with a better, brighter light source and more sensitive detectors becoming available for fast data collection and development in chemometric techniques for data mining; novel applications are increasingly found in biomedical research including drug screening and disease diagnosis.

13.2 Theory

The theory of infra‐red ...

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