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Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, Third Edition by Matthew DeLisa, Fikret Kargi, Michael L. Shuler

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5. Major Metabolic Pathways

A major challenge in bioprocess development is to select an organism that can efficiently make a desired product. Before about 1980 only naturally occurring organisms were available. With the advent of genetic engineering, it is possible to remove and add genes to an organism to alter its metabolic functions in a predetermined manner (metabolic engineering). Further, with mixed cultures of multiple species for food fermentations and waste treatment, metabolic cross-feeding may be critical to the behavior of such populations, particularly biodegradation of xenobiotics. In any case, the bioprocess developer must understand the metabolic capabilities of natural organisms either to use them directly or to know how to metabolically ...

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